The road to war
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“The Road To War”. MIDDLE COLONIES. 4 - Fighting for Independence. British & American Strengths and Weaknesses Siege of Boston Bunker Hill “The Road to WAR”. + NAVY (LARGE) FACTORIES ENGINEERS NONCOMMISSION OFFICERS CENTRAL GOV’T WEALTH SUPPORT at Home. -

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“The Road To War”

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The road to war

“The Road To War”


Middle colonies

MIDDLE COLONIES


4 fighting for independence

4 - Fighting for Independence

  • British & American Strengths and Weaknesses

  • Siege of Boston

  • Bunker Hill

  • “The Road to WAR”


British

+

NAVY (LARGE)

FACTORIES

ENGINEERS

NONCOMMISSION OFFICERS

CENTRAL GOV’T

WEALTH

SUPPORT at Home

-

SHORT TROOPS (MERCENARIES) -Hessians

3,000 M ILES

UNFAMILIAR GROUND

SMOOTHBORE WEAPONS

BRITISH


Americans

+

Idealistic “Cause”

Familiar Ground

Warfare Tactics

Rifles

-

NO Navy

NO Organized Military

NO Central Gov’t

NO Finances

AMERICANS


The road to war

  • May 1775- 2nd Continental Cong.

    • June (Washington - Commander)

  • Ethan Allen/Green Mtn. Boys

    • Fort Ticonderoga Henry Knox (cannons-Ticonderoga)

  • “`Battle of Bunker Hill” (Breed’s Hill)

    • John Burgoyne

    • Henry Clinton

    • William Howe (Redcoats)


The road to war

  • Benedict Arnold (Quebec)

  • British Refuse “Peace” Petition

    • Olive Branch Petition

  • Thomas Paine - Common Sense

  • Patriots DeclareIndependence


The road to war

  • Loyalists v. PATRIOTS

    • Tories (Reasons )

  • Pacifists (Quakers )

  • Self-Interest (Wealth & positions)

  • presence of British Troops

  • Loyalists Leave / Overestimated


The road to war

  • NEW YORK: Aug. 22,1776 Landings Washington 20,000 many untrained Howe 32,000 (8,000 Hessians) - Long Island -White Plains -Retreats into New Jersey

  • TRENTON 12/24/76 “Delaware River” 1,400 Hessians captured (5 casualties)

  • PRINCETON 1/3/77

  • “Patriot Moral Victories”


Saratoga

SARATOGA


Capture of philadelphia valley forge winter

Capture of Philadelphia &“Valley Forge Winter”


The road to war

  • Gen. Burgoyne marches from Canada toward Albany 7,000 troops

  • takes Fort Ticonderoga -looses Hessian troops at the “Battle of Bennington”

  • Burgoyne’s troops “harrassed” all along the way

  • Battle of SARATOGA

  • Oct. 17,1777 surrenders to Gen. Horatio Gates(Turning Point)

  • - Feb. 1778 France recognizes U.S. - 1779 Spain / 1780 Netherlands


The road to war

  • Aug. 25, 1776 Howe - Philadelphia

  • -Sept. Brandywine to stop British -Sept. 25 Philadelphia “British” -Oct. 4 Germantown

  • Monmouth-

  • “Valley Forge” -11,000 troops, little supplies

  • Friedrich von Steuben (Prussian) train american troops

  • Casimir Pulaski (Polish) Cavalry Unit


Northwest territory

NORTHWEST TERRITORY


The road to war

  • 1778 - George Rogers Clark and his Virginia Volunteers travel Ohio River capture British Forts at:

  • at Vincennes

  • NOW they will claim the whole NORTHWEST TERRITORY


War in the south

“WAR IN THE SOUTH”


The road to war

  • Fall 1778 British take Savannah

  • May 1780 Cornwallis/ Clinton take Charles Town (Capture 5,500 rebels)

  • Camden smashes American forces

  • “Guerrilla warfare” of rebels like: Francis Marion(swamp fox), Andrew Pickens and Thomas Sumter (slow down & buy time for help)

  • Kings Mtn (Bunker Hill in reverse)

  • Cowpens(Nathaniel Greene)

  • Guilford Court Cornwallis to Virginia (move to VA. - new troops & supplies)


Yorktown final victory

YORKTOWN &“FINAL VICTORY”


The road to war

  • By 1780, French had joined the war

  • Marquis de Lafayette “idea” -Combine armies & attack Cornwallis before he can be re-supplied

  • French Fleet attacks “Chesapeake Bay” (Cut-off British Army)

  • 8,000 French / 9,000 American troops

  • Oct. 19, 1781 Cornwallis Surrenders

    • YORKTOWN -

    • War is OVER


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