Mobilization of coal supply
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Mobilization of coal supply. IRADe – Energy Conclave 2006 Dr. D. M. Kale. The way forward…………. To implement the integrated energy policy for coal mobilisation , while caring for the beautiful biosphere of our blue planet , is Embrace Coal Gasification.

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Mobilization of coal supply

Mobilization of coal supply

IRADe – Energy Conclave 2006

Dr. D. M. Kale


The way forward

The way forward…………

To implement the integrated energy policy

for coal mobilisation , while caring for the beautiful biosphere of our blue planet , is

Embrace Coal Gasification.


Assuming all the best things happen

Assuming all the best things happen

We still need to mobilise


Mobilization of coal supply

Coal , the God’s gift as frozen ancient Sunlight,

1432.5 Million tons

Per annum by 2032

From current 400+Mt.


Coal energy conversion

Coal – Energy Conversion

  • Heat (HHV)

  • Pollution

    • Ash

    • CO2

    • NOx

    • SOx

  • Low energy efficiency


Mobilization of coal supply

Pollution


Environment cost of pollution emission in gm kwh

Environment Cost of Pollution Emission in gm/kWh

“If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it …to measure is to know” - Lord Kelvin


Mobilization of coal supply

Can we do it……

Good news

  • Coal Gasification

  • Methane Extraction


Mobilization of coal supply

Coal Gasification

Coal gasification - Controlled combustion of coal & obtain syn gas.

  • Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

  • Surface Coal Gasification (SCG)


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Concept

Two boreholes are drilled into the coal seam


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Concept

Coal is ignited, combustion is maintained by injecting air or oxygen and steam


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Concept

The resulting gases are brought to surface by the second bore hole


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Concept


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Products

Coal


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Potential

UN MINEABLE COAL RESOURCES : 210.14 Billion tons

UN MINEABLE LIGNITE RESOURCES : 32.76 Billion tons

TOTAL UNMINEABLE RESOURCES : 242.90 Billion tons

PERCENTAGE OF COAL AMENABLE TO UCG : 30 %

COAL RESERVES AMENABLE TO UCG : 72.87 Billion tons

UCG GAS (considering 2700 m3/ton): 196.749 Trillion m3

NATURAL GAS EQUIVALENT: 19.67 Trillion m3

CALORIFIC VALUE OF PRODUCED GAS : 3- 5 MJ/m3

CALORIFIC VALUE OF NATURAL GAS = 38 MJ/m3


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG – Potential ( The hidden Treasure !)

UCG – Potential Gujarat

Coal Reserves estimated by ONGC in Gujarat :

  • Patan Tharad block:60 Billion tons

  • Ahmedabad Mehsana block:63 Billion tons

  • Natural Gas Equivalent of UCG

    from these block with 20% conversion of coal Reserves : 6 Trillion M3

Indian Natural Gas reserves 1 Trillion M3


Mobilization of coal supply

Power

SYN GAS

Nitrogenous Fertilizers

Petrochemicals (MTO, MTP technology)

Liquid Fuels (GTL technology)

UCG - Utility


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG – Project Timeline

UCG - Road Map


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Advantage

Facilitates exploitation of deep / unminable coal reserves

Higher efficiency coupled with low capital costs than conventional coal-fired station

Eliminates SO2 emission

Radio active ash remains deep down…


Mobilization of coal supply

UCG - Advantage

  • Environmentally friendly

    • Significant reduction in CO2, SOx, NOx emissions

    • No Waste disposal (Ash Trapped Underground)

    • Reduced emission of Green House Gases by CO2 Sequestration

  • Short Construction and Commissioning Time


  • Mobilization of coal supply

    UCG - Advantage

    • Replacing underground mines under complicated, risky conditions of operation.

    • Environmental protection.

    • Augment and replace dwindling valuable fuels as oil and gas


    Surface coal gasification scg

    Surface Coal Gasification (SCG)

    A process for converting Coal deposits into Gas insitu.


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Surface Coal Gasification (SCG)

    Process Flow Chart


    Coal gasification gasifier internals

    Coal Gasification Gasifier Internals


    Surface coal gasification highlights of technology

    Surface Coal GasificationHighlights of Technology

    • Equipment Design lifetime – typically 25 years

    • Robust membrane wall, No lining repair required.

    • Coal burner life time > 20,000 Hrs proven

    • High carbon conversion

    • High cold gas efficiency, > 80% LHV

    • Easy single gasifier scale up – to 40,000 TPD of coal.

    • Single Gasifier availability expected at 95%

      • Maintenance sht down 3 week every 2 year.

      • Recommanded inspection shut down (1-2 week)

      • Unscheduled downtime not factored in.


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Surface Coal Gasification (SCG)

    Possible Process Flow Stream


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Where are others ? China


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Where are others ? USA

    • Extensive R&D activity funded by DOE

    • Contemplating to have poly-generation plants with capture and sequestration of CO2

    • Scale of dreams - 70 large plants to generate 35 GW power and 2.4 million barrels a day of zero sulfur liquid fuel utilizing 350 MMtpa of coal…syn gas parks


    Environment power perspective

    Environment – Power Perspective


    Coal gasification

    Coal Gasification

    Environmental Benefits….

    • Gas suitable for high-efficiency power generation.

    • High-pressure product gas can be easily treated.

    • CO2 capture & sequestration.

    • Cavity potential future sequestration locations.


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Background

    • Global concern on rising concentration of CO2

    • Increased from 280 to 370 ppm

    Rise in CO2 Concentration

    (Mauna Loa)


    Mobilization of coal supply

    Carbon Sequestration

    • Depleted Oil & gas reservoirs

    • Saline formations

    • Salt caverns

    • Mineralisation

    • Deep oceans

    Disposal

    Capture

    • EOR

    • Coalbed Methane

    Utilisation


    Mobilization of coal supply

    UCG / SCG– Policies

    Decision requiring attention

    Royalty for coal in case of UCG need be nominal since without UCG resource can not be exploited.

    Initially low tariffs to encourage investments.

    Power generation from UCG needs special fiscal regime.

    Deploying UCG / SCG syn-gas towards chemical feedstock and for liquefaction needs R&D as well as high incentives.

    Coal need to be specially mined and allocated for SCG.


    Get convinced

    Get Convinced ….

    And then …….

    PUSH Hard !!!!!!!!!!!!!


    Mobilization of coal supply

    For our beautiful planet


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