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Pumps. CM4120 D. Caspary February, 2004. Outline. Intro to Pumping Classifications of pumps Positive Displacement Pump – Examples and Applications Centrifugal Pumps – Examples and Applications Pump Curves. History of Pumps. First pumps were driven by water wheels or animal powered

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D. Caspary

February, 2004



  • Intro to Pumping

  • Classifications of pumps

  • Positive Displacement Pump – Examples and Applications

  • Centrifugal Pumps – Examples and Applications

  • Pump Curves

History of pumps

History of Pumps

  • First pumps were driven by water wheels or animal powered

    • Water was lifted w/ paddles and dumped at a higher elevation

    • Over 2200 years ago in Greece, Persia, the Orient , some still in use today

  • Electric motor is most common machine in use today, the pump is second most common

  • Agriculture  Automobile  Construction  Chemical Manufacturing  Household  Hydraulic Systems  Submarines  Space Station  Zeeland to Zimbabwe

Pump applications

Pump Applications

Used to increase the potential and/or kinetic energy state of a fluid

  • Liquid – water, chemical, fuels, coolants, refrigerants, hydraulic fluids, boiler feed, condensate return, etc.

  • Vapor/gas – foams, air, other gases

  • Slurries – concrete, quarry slurries, mud for drilling, precipitates, sewage, pulp stock, etc.

Two primary classifications of pumps

Two Primary Classifications of Pumps

  • Dynamic (or Centrifugal) – Use a spinning impeller to induce centrifugal forces, increasing pressure at the discharge side of the housing.

  • Positive Displacement – Transfers a fixed volume of fluid thru the pump housing with each cycle of operation.

Classifications of pumps

Classifications of Pumps

Overwhelming majority of all pumps are some type of Centrifugal Pump.

  • Lower initial cost

  • Reduced maintenance costs

    Positive Displacement Pumps are widely used but for specific applications.

Comparison between positive displacement and centrifugal pumps

Comparison betweenPositive Displacement and Centrifugal Pumps

Head vs flow comparison between positive displacement and centrifugal pumps

Head vs. Flow Comparison between Positive Displacement and Centrifugal Pumps

Effect of increasing viscosity on flow for positive displacement and centrifugal pumps

Effect of Increasing Viscosity on Flow for Positive Displacement and Centrifugal Pumps

Comparison of efficiency vs head between positive displacement and centrifugal pumps

Comparison of Efficiency vs. Head between Positive Displacement and Centrifugal Pumps

Positive displacement pump family tree

Positive Displacement Pump “Family Tree”

Types of pd pumps gear pumps

Types of PD Pumps – Gear Pumps

  • External Gear Pump

    • High speed

    • Quiet operation

    • Fuel, lubricants, hydraulic fluid power systems, metering

    • No solids

  • Internal Gear Pump

    • Non-pulsating discharge pressure

    • Low NPSHR

    • Low to moderate speed

    • High viscosity fluids


Other Common Types of PD Pumps

  • Lobe Pump

    • No metal to metal contact

    • Can handle solids without damaging them

    • Applications are found in food processing, pharmaceutical, personal care, etc.

  • Diaphragm Pump

Centrifugal pump family tree


Positive Displacement




Single Stage


Open Impeller

Closed Impeller

Centrifugal Pump “Family Tree”

How a centrifugal pump works

How a Centrifugal Pump Works

  • Pump housing must be primed

  • Impeller rotates, imparting an outward velocity to the fluid – kinetic energy

  • Fluid velocity reaches maximum at the outside diameter of the impeller

  • Fluid enters the volute where it is channeled to the discharge

  • Resistance to flow, starting at the volute, reduces velocity creating pressure energy

  • Vapor pressure of fluid causes new fluid to be drawn into the eye of the impeller

A centrifugal pump driver installation

A Centrifugal Pump/Driver Installation

Discharge line

Electric Motor

Pump Housing


Bearing Support

Suction line

External Cooling

Stuffing Box and Packing Gland

Single stage horizontal shaft closed impeller flowserve pump co

Single Stage, Horizontal Shaft, Closed ImpellerFlowserve Pump Co.

Horizontal split case single stage fire pump patterson pump div of gorman rupp

Horizontal, Split Case, Single Stage Fire PumpPatterson Pump, Div. of Gorman-Rupp

Vertical pumps carver pump co

Vertical PumpsCarver Pump Co.

Horizontal multi stage pump cut away

Horizontal, Multi-Stage Pump Cut-away

Types of impellers

Types of Impellers

  • Closed vane

  • Open vane

  • Open vane, cut impeller

Pump curve for a goulds model hsc centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm

Pump Curve for a Goulds Model HSC centrifugal pump at 3500 rpm

When selecting new pump or changing capacity of existing pumps:

  • Capacity for 6 impeller sizes


  • Req’d horsepower

  • Efficiency

Pumping affinity laws

Pumping Affinity Laws

Used for estimating pump performance when changing impeller size or RPM

  • Q1/Q2=N1/N2

  • H1/H2=(N1/N2)2

  • P1/P2=(N1/N2)3

Pump efficiency overall efficiency

Pump EfficiencyOverall Efficiency

PP, Pump Input power, BHP

PW, Pump Output Power

PMOT, Driver Input Power

Pump maintenance

Pump Maintenance

  • Seals

    • Shaft packing vs. mechanical seals

    • Monitor for leaks

  • Bearings

    • Overhung vs. double support

    • Monitor vibration

  • Wetted parts corrosion

  • Cavitation

    • monitor suction-side pressure

    • listen for rattling



  • Viking Pump product literature

  • Gorman-Rupp product literature

  • Goulds Pump product literature

  • Flowserve product literature

  • Carver Pump product literature

  • Pump Handbook, Karassik, Krutzsch, Fraser, Messina, McGraw-Hill, 1976

  • www.pumpschool.com, Viking Pump, Feb. 2004.

  • www.engineeringtoolbox.com, The Engineering Toolbox, March 2004.

Pumping terminology

Pumping Terminology

  • Head

  • Gauge head (hg)

  • Velocity head (hv)

  • Elevation head (Z)

  • Atmospheric head (hatm)

  • Total suction head or suction lift (hs)

  • Total discharge head (hd)

  • Total head (H)



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