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In December 1863, during the __ ________ , Lincoln announced the ______ _________ _______, which offered Southern states a way back into the Union. The president offered _____________ to all white Southerners, except _______________ _____________ , who were willing to swear _____________ to the Union. Lincoln also supported granting _______________ Americans the right to ______________. Some Republicans favored a more _____________ approach. In July 1864, ____________ passed the ________ - ____________ ________ , which said that a ______________ of a state’s white males had to swear loyalty to the Union.
Chapter 17 Section 4 Change in the South pgs. 513-520By 1876 Reconstruction began to decline due to old ______________ _______________ disappearing from the political scene and racial ________________ in the North. In the 1870s, report of __________________ in Grant’s administration and in ____________________ governments spread throughout the nation. The _______________________ party split with one group forming the _______________ __________________. This group nominated ____________ _____________ , a newspaper editor from New York, to run against ___________ in the 1872 presidential election. __________ was reelected.
In May 1872, Congress passed the _____________ Act, which pardoned most former Confederates. The Amnesty Act changed the _____________ _______________ in the South by restoring full rights to people who supported the Democratic Party. In the Southern states where a majority of voters were white, _______________ soon regained control of state governments. _____________ voters were terrorized by groups such as the KKK. In an election in Mississippi in 1875, Democrats won by a __________ majority. Democrats also used ________________ to persuade African Americans not to vote. Republicans also had other problems, in 1873 a series of political ________________ came to light which damaged the Republican Party and the Grant administration. Investigations uncovered top government officials making unfair _______________ deals, scheming to withhold public ______ money and accepting bribes. By 1874, for the first time since the Civil War, the _________________ Party controlled a part of the federal government which weakened Congress’s commitment to Reconstruction and protecting the rights of newly freed African Americans.
The election of 1876 brought about new problems with disputed returns from some states with the Democratic candidate, ___________ ____________ being one electoral vote short of the 185 needed to win the election. Congress created a special commission of ___ Democrats, 7 Republicans, and one independent to review the election results. Four months later, on March 2, 1877, _________ was declared the winner. With the Compromise of ________, Hayes announced __________________ was over; now the Southern states would handle racial issues. ______________ took control and called themselves, _________________, because they had saved the South from Republican rule.
Editor Henry Grady, a Southerner, said the “New South” would have _____________ based on coal, iron, tobacco, cotton lumber, and the region’s other abundant resources. Industry in the South made dramatic gains after Reconstruction. Some of the strongest advances were in the ______________ industry; others were ___________, ___________, _______, and steel. The Southern industries grew because of a cheap and reliable _____________ and the ___________-_____________ boom. _________________ and reliance on a single cash crop hampered the development of a more modern agricultural economy. The rural South sank deeper into ____________ and _________. Society divided and steps were taken to keep ___________ Americans separated from whites and to deny them basic rights. Southerners found ways to get around the 15th Amendment by requiring a ________ _______ and __________ _________.
Because the literacy test could also keep some whites from voting, some states passed ______________ clauses. Southern states formed segregated societies by passing the ________ _______ ________. They required African Americans and whites to be separated in almost every public place where they might come in contact with each other. In 1896 the Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow laws and segregation in ____________________________. ____________________ was a terrible form of violence that angry mobs of whites used to punish African Americans suspected of committing crimes. The biggest disappointment of Reconstruction was that it did not make good on the promise of __________ _____________ for freed African Americans.
Jim Crow Laws
Plessy v. Ferguson