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Chapter 6 Early India. Early India. Chapter Introduction Section 1 India’s First Civilizations Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism Section 3 India’s First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Early India.

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Chapter 6 early india

Chapter 6

Early India


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Chapter Introduction

Section 1 India’s First Civilizations

Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism

Section 3 India’s First Empires Reading Review

Chapter Assessment

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Chapter Objectives

  • Describe how climate and geography affected India, and how the Aryans changed India.

  • Summarize the main tenets of Hinduism and Buddhism.

  • Discuss the effects of the Mauryan and Gupta empires on India.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Click the speaker button to play the audio.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

This section describes how geography and climate affected the Harappans and the changes to India’s civilization following the arrival of the Aryans.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Climate and geography influenced the rise of India’s first civilization.

  • The Aryans conquered India and introduced new ideas and technology. 

  • The Aryans created a caste system that separated Indians into groups.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Himalaya (HIH·muh·LAY·uh) 

  • Ganges River (GAN·JEEZ) 

  • Indus River (IHN·duhs) 

  • Harappa (huh·RA·puh) 

  • Mohenjo-Daro (moh·HEHN·joh DAHR·oh)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Meeting People

  • Aryans (AR·ee·uhnz) 

  • Brahmans (BRAH·muhns) 

Building Your Vocabulary

  • subcontinent (SUHB·KAHN·tuhn·uhnt) 

  • monsoon (mahn·SOON) 

  • Sanskrit (SAN·SKRIHT)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary (cont.)

  • raja (RAH·juh) 

  • caste (KAST) 

  • guru (GUR·oo) 

Reading Strategy

Organizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 194 of your textbook showing how the Aryans changed India.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Land of India

  • India is a subcontinent because it is separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayas, the highest mountains in the world.

  • The Indian subcontinent contains five nations: India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. 

  • India has two fertile river valleys created by the Ganges River and the Indus River.

(pages 195–197)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Land of India (cont.)

  • A monsoon is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer.

  • Monsoons bring rain in summer. 

  • The first civilization in India arose near the Indus River after the river flooded and left fertile soil behind. 

  • This civilization started about 3000 B.C. and lasted until about 1500 B.C.

(pages 195–197)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Land of India (cont.)

  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were large, well-planned cities in ancient India.

  • The cities had wells, drains for wastewater, garbage chutes, and organized governments. 

  • The houses were made from baked mud bricks. 

  • Most people were farmers. 

  • They grew wheat, barley, peas, and cotton.

(pages 195–197)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Land of India (cont.)

  • City dwellers were artisans, who made jewelry, pottery, tools, and cloth. 

  • The Harappans traded their goods with people from other lands.

(pages 195–197)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Why do archaeologists think the Harappans were peaceful people?

Scientists have found few weapons in the ruins of Harappa. This implies that the people were not warriors.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Aryans Invade

  • The Aryans were hunters who also raised and herded cattle. 

  • Because they herded animals, Aryans were also nomads and expert warriors.

  • They had metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots.

  • The Aryans invaded Harappan civilization and destroyed it.

(pages 198–199)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Aryans Invade (cont.)

  • They later conquered all of the Indian subcontinent except the southern tip of India. 

  • After conquering India, the Aryans became farmers but continued to raise cattle.

  • The cattle were so important, the Aryans eventually declared them sacred.

(pages 198–199)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

The Aryans Invade (cont.)

  • The Aryans invented an iron plow and built canals to improve farming. 

  • The Aryans’ written language is called Sanskrit.

  • Aryan tribes were led by a raja, or prince.

(pages 198–199)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Why were nomads good warriors?

Because nomads traveled, they often met up with other people whom they considered enemies. They also came upon villages they needed to plunder for food.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Society in Ancient India

  • A caste is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change. 

  • The Aryans believed in four levels of society.

  • The top level included priests and warriors.

  • The next level was common people, such as merchants and farmers.

(pages 199–201)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Society in Ancient India (cont.)

  • The third level included laborers and servants. 

  • The lowest level was made up of the Untouchables. 

  • These people did work others did not want to do.

(pages 199–201)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Society in Ancient India (cont.)

  • Men’s lives were considered more important than women’s lives. 

  • In most cases, only men could inherit property. 

  • Only men were allowed to go to school or become priests.

  • Parents arranged marriages, and divorce was not allowed.

(pages 199–201)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Under the caste system in India, what aspects of life are affected by a person’s caste?

A person’s caste affects what job they will have, who they can marry, and who they can socialize with.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Describe the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were planned cities with wide main streets and a wall around each neighborhood. Each mud brick house had a flat roof and was laid out around a courtyard. Each city had public wells, a sewage system, and garbage disposal.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Why are monsoons important to Indian farmers?

They cause soil-enriching floods.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Cause and Effect What caused the collapse of Harappan civilization?

earthquakes, floods, the Indus River changing its course, and the Aryan invasions


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Contrast How did the Aryan and Harappan lifestyles differ?

Harappans were city-dwellers; Aryans were war-like nomads.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Explain How did the Aryans control the people they conquered?

Possible answers: strong military, effects of caste system


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Descriptive Writing Write a description of the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro that could have been used to attract residents to that city in ancient India.

Answers should demonstrate understanding of the text.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations

Discuss the influence of geographic factors on the Harappans and the Aryans.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

The religion of Hinduism is based on the beliefs of the Aryans. Buddhism, a new religion, was popular with many people in India and other areas of Asia.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Hinduism grew out of the ancient beliefs of the Aryans. 

  • A new religion, Buddhism, appealed to many people in India and other parts of Asia.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Nepal (nuh·PAWL) 

  • Tibet (tuh·BEHT) 

Meeting People

  • Siddhartha Gautama (sih·DAHR·tuh GOW·tuh·muh) 

  • Dalai Lama (DAH·LY LAH·muh)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • Hinduism (HIHN·doo·IH·zuhm) 

  • Brahman (BRAH·muhn) 

  • reincarnation (REE·ihn·kahr·NAY·shuhn) 

  • dharma (DAHR·muh) 

  • karma (KAHR·muh) 

  • Buddhism (BOO·DIH·zuhm) 

  • nirvana (nihr·VAH·nuh) 

  • theocracy (thee·AH·kruh·see)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Summarizing Information Create a web diagram like the one on page 202 of your textbook. In the ovals, identify major beliefs of Hinduism.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism

  • Hinduism, the world’s third largest religion, is one of the oldest religions. 

  • Hinduism’s roots are in the Aryan religion, which changed after borrowing ideas from conquered people of India. 

  • The Brahman is the universal spirit made up of thousands of gods and goddesses.

(pages 203–204)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism (cont.)

  • The Upanishads are ancient religious writings that describe the search for Brahman. 

  • Reincarnation is the idea of passing through many lives to reach the Brahman. 

  • Dharma is the divine law of Hindus.

(pages 203–204)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism (cont.)

  • This law states that Hindus must perform the duties of their caste. 

  • The consequences of how a person lives is called karma.

(pages 203–204)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

According to Hindus, what are the consequences of a good and a bad life?

Hindus believe if a person lives a good life, then that person might be reborn into a higher caste. If the person lives a bad life, then the person might be reborn in a lower caste.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Buddhism

  • Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the man who became known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” 

  • Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who left his family and wealth to travel.

  • In his travels, he saw much suffering and questioned the need for suffering.

(pages 205–208)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Buddhism (cont.)

  • Legend tells he meditated under a tree for 49 days, and then he understood. 

  • For the rest of his life, Siddhartha traveled to tell people about his discovery.

  • Nirvana, a state of wisdom, occurs when a person gives up all desires.

(pages 205–208)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Buddhism (cont.)

  • The core of Buddha’s teaching is called the Four Noble Truths. 

  • The Eightfold Path describes the steps to eliminate suffering.

  • Buddhism divided into Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism.

  • Theravada Buddhists believe the Buddha was a great teacher, not a god.

(pages 205–208)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Buddhism (cont.)

  • Mahayana Buddhists believe the Buddha was a god who came to save people. 

  • Tibet is a country in central Asia where Mahayana Buddhism mixed with traditional Tibetan religion and Hinduism to create a special kind of Mahayana Buddhism.

  • In Tibet, religious leaders, called lamas, headed the government.

(pages 205–208)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Buddhism (cont.)

  • The Dalai Lama was the government leader, and the Panchen Lama was the religious leader. 

  • A theocracy is a form of government in which religious leaders head the government.

(pages 205–208)


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Why was Buddhism popular with people of lower castes?

The Buddha taught that a person’s life depended on the person, not the caste into which the person was born. He believed that a person could stop being reborn by following the Eightfold Path. This gave lower caste people hope.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

What are the Upanishads?

The Upanishads are ancient religious writings that describe the search for a universal spirit.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

What is reincarnation?

Reincarnation is a religious belief that a soul is reborn many times.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Describe Explain the concept of karma.

Karma is the consequences a soul faces in its next life for its actions in this life.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Explain What is the importance of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path?

The Four Noble Truths explain why people suffer. The Eightfold Path describes behaviors that will end suffering.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Analyze How did the belief in reincarnation both strengthen the divisions in Indian society and provide hope for the lower classes?

One’s position in society results from past acts. Lower classes hoped to improve their position in a future life.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Expository Writing Write a short essay describing Siddhartha Guatama’s journey to enlightenment.

Answers should be based on the text.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

Hinduism is more than a religion; it is a whole way of life.

Identify facts that support this statement.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

The Mauryan and Gupta dynasties built empires in India, and they contributed greatly to literature, mathematics, and science.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • The Mauryan dynasty built India’s first great empire.

  • The Gupta empire reunited much of northern India and became wealthy through trade. 

  • The Mauryan and Gupta empires made important contributions in literature, mathematics, and science.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Pataliputra (PAH·tuh·lih·POO·truh)

Meeting People

  • Chandragupta Maurya (CHUHN·druh·GUP·tuh MAH·oor·yuh) 

  • Asoka (uh·SOH·kuh) 

  • Kalidasa (KAH·lih·DAH·suh)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • dynasty (DY·nuh·stee) 

  • stupa (STOO·puh) 

  • pilgrim (PIHL·gruhm) 

Reading Strategy

Categorizing Information Complete a chart like the one on page 209 of your textbook identifying the important dates, capital city, and government of the Mauryan empire.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

The Mauryan Dynasty

  • Chandragupta Maurya, an Indian prince, founded India’s first empire after Alexander the Great left India.

  • This empire was called the Mauryan dynasty. 

  • A dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. 

  • Chandragupta controlled his dynasty by retaining a strong army and using spies.

(pages 210–211)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

The Mauryan Dynasty (cont.)

  • Many historians consider Asoka the Mauryan dynasty’s greatest king.

  • After he was a strong military leader, Asoka turned away from violence. 

  • He made a vow to live a peaceful life and follow Buddhism. 

  • Asoka did many great things for his people.

(pages 210–211)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

The Mauryan Dynasty (cont.)

  • For example, he built hospitals and new roads and sent teachers throughout India to teach Buddhism.

  • The empire grew weak after Asoka’s death. 

  • The kings made poor decisions, and the Mauryan Empire fell.

(pages 210–211)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

What happened as a result of Alexander the Great’s invasion of northern India?

Alexander the Great’s army weakened the people of India. After Alexander the Great and his men left, the people could not resist Chandragupta.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

The Gupta Empire

  • After 500 years of fighting, another Chandragupta took power and founded the Gupta dynasty.

  • After Chandragupta died, his son, Samudragupta, took over and expanded the empire. 

  • The Guptas ruled for about 200 years. 

  • They grew wealthy from trade with China and kingdoms in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean.

(page 213)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

The Gupta Empire (cont.)

  • Pilgrims were people who often used the trade routes to travel to a religious shrine or site.

  • Visiting pilgrims helped make cities wealthy just as tourists make cities wealthy today. 

  • The Guptas were Hindus, and they made Hinduism the official religion. 

  • The golden age of art and learning in India was during the Gupta empire.

(page 213)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

What advantage did the Gupta rulers have that the Mauryan rulers did not?

The kingdom had gotten smaller before the Gupta rulers took power. The smaller kingdom was easier to rule.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Indian Literature and Science

  • The Vedas of India are hymns and prayers used in religious ceremonies.

  • The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit after the Aryan people came to India. 

  • The epics Mahabharata and Ramayana are two poems that are still famous in India today. 

  • Both epics tell about warriors and their brave deeds.

(pages 214–216)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Indian Literature and Science (cont.)

  • Kalidasa was a writer who lived during the Gupta dynasty.

  • His poem The Cloud Messenger is one of the most popular Sanskrit poems. 

  • Aryabhata was a mathematician who lived during the Gupta dynasty. 

  • He was one of the first scientists to use algebra.

(pages 214–216)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Indian Literature and Science (cont.)

  • Mathematicians in the Gupta empire developed the symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we use today.

  • They also invented algorithms and the idea of zero. 

  • Indians also developed ideas in astronomy and medicine.

(pages 214–216)


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

What kinds of medical advances were made by Gupta doctors?

Gupta doctors could set broken bones and perform surgeries. They also developed medical tools. One doctor even carried out an early form of plastic surgery.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Describe trade during the Gupta empire?

Indians traded salt, cloth, and iron with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

What is the message of the Bhagavad Gita?

It taught people to do their duty even when it was painful.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Analyze How were Asoka’s Buddhist beliefs reflected in his accomplishments as king?

His improvements were for the overall good. He built hospitals, roads, and rest stops for travelers; sent missionaries throughout India and Asia; carved Buddha’s principles on pillars; built stupas; and practiced religious tolerance.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Expository Writing Which of the Indian emperors described in this section do you think was the greatest ruler? Write a short essay explaining your choice.

Be sure to provide reasons for your choice of ruler.


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Math Link Why would the development of a number system be important in a civilization that depended on trade?

to keep records of transactions and to monitor the exchange of money


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires

Summarize how religion affected the Gupta empire.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Section 1: India’s First Civilizations

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Climate and geography influenced the rise of India’s first civilization.

  • The Aryans conquered India and introduced new ideas and technology. 

  • The Aryans created a caste system that separated Indians into groups.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Section 2: Hinduism and Buddhism

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Hinduism grew out of the ancient beliefs of the Aryans.

  • A new religion, Buddhism, appealed to many people in India and other parts of Asia.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Section 3: India’s First Empires

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • The Mauryan dynasty built India’s first great empire.

  • The Gupta empire reunited much of northern India and became wealthy through trade. 

  • The Mauryan and Gupta empires made important contributions in literature, mathematics, and science.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Vocabulary

Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.

D

__ 1.Each Aryan tribe was led by a ____.

__ 2.In a ____, government is led by religious leaders.

__ 3.A ____ is a line of rulers who belong to the same family.

__ 4. A ____ travels to religious places.

  • A.stupa

  • B.guru

  • C.caste

  • D.raja

  • pilgrim

  • theocracy

  • monsoon

  • dynasty

F

H

E


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Vocabulary

Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.

G

__ 5.A ____ is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer.

__ 6.A ____, is a teacher.

__ 7.A ____ is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change.

__ 8. ____ are Buddhist shrines that have the shape of a dome or mound.

  • A.stupa

  • B.guru

  • C.caste

  • D.raja

  • pilgrim

  • theocracy

  • monsoon

  • dynasty

B

C

A


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 1 India’s First Civilizations

What influenced the rise of India’s first civilizations?

Geography and climate influenced the first civilizations.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 1 India’s First Civilizations

What was the purpose of the caste system?

No one is sure, but possibly to help Aryans stay in control.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism

From what did Hinduism form?

Hinduism formed from the ancient beliefs of the Aryans.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism

Which religion appealed to people in India and other parts of Asia?

Buddhism


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 3 India’s First Empires

Which dynasty built India’s first great empire?

the Mauryan dynasty


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Review Main Ideas

Section 3 India’s First Empires

Why was the Gupta empire important?

It reunited much of India and became wealthy through trade.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Compare How do you think the Eightfold Path is similar to the Ten Commandments of Judaism?

They both describe behaviors that believers must try to follow.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Analyze How does the Mahabharata reflect the ideals of ancient India?

It stresses the importance of doing one’s duty.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Explain How did the monsoons affect the development of India’s first civilizations?

The summer monsoon made the Indus River flood, fertilizing the soil and leading to good farming. Surplus food led to specialization and civilization.


Chapter 6 early india

Early India

Predict What do you think might have happened if Asoka had approved of the slaughter on the battlefield during his wars of conquest?

Answers might include that wars might have continued during the Mauryan empire; the empire might have been larger; Buddhism may not have spread so quickly.


Chapter 6 early india

Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.

Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 6-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go tohttp://www.jat.glencoe.com


Chapter 6 early india

Maps

Geography of India

Aryan Migration 2000–500 B.C.

Mauryan Empirec. 250 B.C.

Gupta Empirec. A.D.600

Charts

Early India’s Social System

Major Hindu Gods and Goddesses

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.


Chapter 6 early india

Geography of India


Chapter 6 early india

Aryan Migration 2000-500 B.C.


Chapter 6 early india

Mauryan Empire c. 250 B.C.


Chapter 6 early india

Gupta Empire c. A.D. 600


Chapter 6 early india

India's First Civilizations

As dangerous as monsoon flooding can be, drought is much more devastating to the people of India. In 1770, the rains did not come, and a famine occurred because of the drought. About 10 million people died in Bengal, an Indian state.


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism

In 1949, the country of Tibet was invaded by China. China still occupies Tibet and tries to expel Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetans who fail to denounce their religion or who possess an image of the Dalai Lama, their religious leader, are punished.


Chapter 6 early india

India's First Empires

Following Buddhist ways, Asoka respected all life and even created hospitals for animals.


Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

Learn It!

Building Your Vocabulary

What do you do when you are reading and come to a word you do not know? Here are some hints: 

  • Use clues in the sentence (called context clues) to help you define it. 

  • Look for prefixes, suffixes, or root words that you already know. 

  • Look it up in the glossary or a dictionary.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

Learn It!

Building Your Vocabulary

What do you do when you are reading and come to a word you do not know? Here are some hints:

  • Write it down and ask for help with the meaning. 

  • Guess at its meaning. 

Look at the word Untouchables in the paragraph on the next slide.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

Context If you know what the caste system is, it will help you figure out the meaning of Untouchables.

There was one group solow that it was not even part of the caste system. Its members were called Pariahs, or the Untouchables. They performed work other Indians thought was too dirty, such as collecting trash, skinning animals, or handling dead bodies.

Context The “Untouchables” were a “group.” They had a “low” rank in society.

—from page 200

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

Prefixes and Suffixes You might know that the prefix un-means “not” and the suffix –able means “to be able to.” You might guess that the meaning of Untouchable is an Indian who was not to be touched by others.

There was one group solow that it was not even part of the caste system. Its members were called Pariahs, or the Untouchables. They performed work other Indians thought was too dirty, such as collecting trash, skinning animals, or handling dead bodies.

Context The fact that they performed the “dirty” work indicates how they were viewed by others in Indian society.

—from page 200

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Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

There was one group solow that it was not even part of the caste system. Its members were called Pariahs, or the Untouchables. They performed work other Indians thought was too dirty, such as collecting trash, skinning animals, or handling dead bodies.

—from page 200

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Chapter 6 early india

Reading Social Studies

Practice It!

Defining Words

Read the paragraph from Chapter 6 on page 193 of your textbook. 

  • What are three things you could do to help you understand the meaning of the word subcontinent in this paragraph?

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Chapter 6 early india

Introduction

Early India


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Civilizations


Chapter 6 early india

Hinduism and Buddhism


Chapter 6 early india

India’s First Empires


Chapter 6 early india

Morality in the Eightfold Path


Chapter 6 early india

The Bhagavad Gita


Chapter 6 early india

The Buddha

563–483 B.C.

Sculpture of the Buddha sitting on a cobra.

The Buddha


Chapter 6 early india

Emperor Asoka

Carving from top of pillar created under Asoka.

Asoka


Chapter 6 early india

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 6–1

Chapter 6


Chapter 6 early india

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 6–2

Chapter 6


Chapter 6 early india

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 6–3

Chapter 6


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