Arash rafiey
Download
1 / 55

Arash Rafiey - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 103 Views
  • Uploaded on

Arash Rafiey. [email protected] TA : Xu Cheng [email protected] Office Hours M-W 10:30 – 11:30. How Create a C++ Program. #include<iostream> using namespace std; void main() { cout<<“Hello World”; } If your compiler gives error then. #include<iostream.h> void main() {

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Arash Rafiey' - tate-kaufman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Arash rafiey
Arash Rafiey

[email protected]

TA : Xu Cheng

[email protected]

Office Hours

M-W 10:30 – 11:30



#include<iostream>

using namespace std;

void main()

{

cout<<“Hello World”;

}

If your compiler gives error then


#include<iostream.h>

void main()

{

cout<<“Hello World”;

cout<<endl; // for going to new line

cout<<“ good bye”;

}

cout is an object for printing out some thing

on the screen.


#include<iostream.h>

void main()

{

cout<<“Hello World \n”;

cout<<“ good bye”;

}

we can use \n instead of cout<<endl;


How to run your program
How to run your program

  • Using Linux or unix:

    g++ myFile.cpp

    ./a.out

    g++ myFile.cpp myFile.out

    ./myFile.out


Declare statement variable
Declare Statement & Variable

  • Each variable must be declare before use

  • Each variable has a type:

    For example

    int , char, float.

    int for Integer type;

    char for character like ‘A’;

    float for real number;


Example
Example

int LuckyNumber=17;

float RealNumber;

char a=‘A’;


Identifiers
Identifiers

  • Identifier: name of a variable, function, or class

  • Rules for identifiers in C++:

    1Can be made up of letters, digits, and the underscore (_) character

    2 Cannot start with a digit

    3 Cannot use other symbols such as ? or %

    4 Spaces are not permitted inside identifiers

    5 You cannot use reserved words

    6 They are case sensitive


Self check
Self Check

1. What is the type of the values 0 and ‘0’?

2. Which of the following are legal identifiers?

Greeting1gvoid101dalmatiansHello, World<greeting>


Answer
Answer

  • int and char

  • Only the first two are legal identifiers


Syntax variable definition
Syntax : Variable Definition

  • typeName variableName = value;ortypeName variableName;

    Example :

    int numbe = 12;

    Purpose:

    To define a new variable of a particular type and optionally supply an initial value


The assignment operator
The Assignment Operator

  • Assignment operator: =

  • Not used as a statement about equality

  • Used to change the value of a variable

    int number1;

    int number2, number3; number1=number2=number3=88;


number2=number2-1;

number3=number2+1;


How to read a variable
How to read a variable

#include<iostream>

using namespace std;

void main()

{

int number;

cout<<“please enter a number \n”;

cin>>number;

number=number+1;

cout<<“the number is “<<number;

}


Integer types
Integer Types

  • The short, int and long Integer Types

    A short integer is at least 16 bits

    A int integer is at least as big as short

    A long integer is at least 32 bits and at

    least as big as int .



#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int n_int = INT_MAX;

short n_short = SHRT_MAX;

long n_long = LONG_MAX;

cout << “int is “ << sizeof (int) << “ bytes” << endl;

cout << “short: “ << n_short << endl;

cout << “long: “ << n_long << endl;

return 0;

}



Characters and small integers
Characters and small integers

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

char ch = ‘M’; // assign ASCII code

int a = ch;

cout << “ASCII code: “ << ch << “ is “ << a << endl;

ch = ch + 1;

a = ch;

cout << “ASCII code: “ << ch << “ is “ << a << endl;

return 0;

}


Output
Output

  • M is 77

  • N is 78


Boolean type
Boolean type

  • bool isReady = true;

  • int ans = true; // ans assigned 1

  • int promise = false; // promise assigned 0

  • bool start = -100; // true

  • bool stop = 0; // false


Floating point number
Floating-point number

  • E.g.

    • 12.34

    • 9300.3

    • 0.02

    • 8.0

  • We have

    float, double, long double


  • Arithmetic operators
    Arithmetic operators

    • Summation: +

    • Multiplication: *

    • Division: /

    • Subtraction: -


    Operator precedence
    Operator Precedence

    • int number = 3 + 4 * 5 // 35 or 23?

    • float logs = 120 / 4 * 5 // 150 or 6??


    Type casting
    Type Casting

    • Conversion between types:

    • (typeName) value // c

    • typeName (value) // c++

    • e.g.

      • cout << int(‘A’) << endl; // 65

      • float one,

      • int two;

        • one = 1.9 + 2.1;

        • two = (int) 1.9 + (int) 2.1;


    Functions
    Functions

    • Building blocks of programs

    • A function

      • Has an input and an output

      • Contains a set of instructions

    • x = sqrt(16); // returns 4


    Syntax
    Syntax

    • typeName functionName (typeName varName_1, …)

      {

      BODY

      .

      .

      .

      return value;

      }


    Examples of functions
    Examples of functions

    int sum (int firstValue, int secondValue)

    {

    int final;

    final = firstValue + secondValue;

    return final;

    }

    void main()

    {

    int a = 1;

    int b = 2;

    int total = sum(a,b);

    cout << “Total is: “ << total << endl;

    }


    Arrays
    Arrays

    • An array is a data form that holds several values of the same type

    • Syntax:

      • typeName arrayName[value];

    • e.g:

      • int someArray[3];

    • Index starts from 0!!!

      • someArray[0] = 1;

      • someArray[2] = 2;


    Initializations rules for arrays
    Initializations Rules for Arrays

    • int array[4] = {2,6,4,5};

    • int secondArray[4];

    • secondArray[4] = {5,6,7,8}; // error!!!

    • secondArray = array; //error!!!

    • float Hotel[5] = {1.1, 2.2};

    • long total[500] = {0};



    String
    String

    • Series of characters stored in a consecutive bytes

    • Create a string as an array but the last element must be the null character ‘\0’

      • e.g

        • char dog[5] = {‘b’,’e’,’a’,’u’,’x’}; //NOT!!

        • char dog[6] = {‘b’,’e’,’a’,’u’,’x’,’\0’}; // STRING!!


    More examples
    More examples

    • char dog[5] = “beaux”; //a better way

      null character is implicitly included.

    • char name[]=“c++”; // compiler counts

    • char boss[8]=“Arvind”;


    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int arSize = 20;

    char name[arSize];

    char dessert[arSize];

    cout << “Enter your name: “ << endl;

    cin >> name;

    cout << “Enter your dessert: “ << endl;

    cin >> dessert;

    cout << name << “ has selected: “ << dessert << endl;

    return 0;

    }


    Another way to read a string
    Another way to read a string

    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int arSize = 20;

    char name[arSize];

    char dessert[arSize];

    cout << “Enter your name: “ << endl;

    cin.getline(name, arSize); // reads through newline

    cout << “Enter your dessert: “ << endl;

    cin.getline(dessert, arSize);

    cout << name << “ has selected: “ << dessert << endl;

    return 0;

    }


    The string class
    The String class

    • To define strings more easily:

      • Include the string class:

        • #include<string>

        • string str_1 = “jaguar”;


    Assignment concatenation appending
    Assignment & Concatenation & Appending

    • char char_1[20];

    • char char_2[20] = “jaguar”;

    • string str_1;

    • string str_2 = “panther”;

    • char_1 = char_2; // INVALID!!

    • str_1 = str_2; // VALID!!


    Appending
    Appending

    • string str_3;

    • str_3 = str_1 + str_2; // join str_1 and str_2

    • str_1 += str_2; // add str_2 to the end of str_1


    More string operations
    More string operations:

    • Copying: #include <cstring>

      • strcpy(char_1, char_2); //copy char_2 into char_1 strcat(char_1, char_2); //append char_2 to char_1

    • Size of a string:

      • char charOne[20] = {‘p’,’i’,’e’};

      • string strOne = “pie”;

      • strlen(charOne);

      • strOne.size();


    Increment decrement
    Increment & Decrement

    • Increment: ++

      int a = 20;

      int b = 20;

      cout << “a: “ << a << “ b: “ << b << endl;

      cout << “a++: “ << a++ << “ ++b: “ << ++b << endl;

      cout << “a: “ << a << “ b: “ << b << endl;


    a: 20 b:20

    a++: 20 ++b:21

    a:21 b:21

    int x = 5;

    int y = ++x;


    Decrement
    Decrement: --

    • Same rules as increment ( i.e. ++)


    Loops
    Loops

    • different types:

      • for

      • while

      • etc.


    For loop
    For Loop

    • for(initialValue; test-expression ; update-expression)

      {

      BODY

      }


    Example1
    Example

    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int a;

    for (a = 0; a < 10; a++ )

    {

    cout << a << endl;

    }

    return 0;

    }


    While loop
    While loop

    • while(test-expression)

      {

      BODY

      }


    Example2
    Example

    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int arSize = 20;

    char name[arSize];

    cin >> name;

    int a = 0;

    while (name[a] != ‘\0’)

    {

    cout << name[a] << endl;

    a++;

    }

    return 0;

    }


    Conditional statements
    Conditional Statements

    • if statements

    • Syntax:

      if (condition)

      {

      IF_BODY

      }

      else

      {

      ELSE_BODY

      }


    Conditions
    Conditions:

    • Relational Expressions:

      • Comparisons:

        • e.g

          • == tests equality

          • > is greater?


    Example3
    Example

    int number;

    cin >> number;

    if ( number < 0) {

    cout << “Negative Value” << endl;

    }

    else {

    cout << “Non-negative Value” << endl;

    }


    Comparing two strings
    Comparing two strings

    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int arSize = 20;

    char name1[arSize];

    char name2[arSize];

    cout<<“String1”<<endl;

    cin>>name1;

    cout<<“String2”<<endl;

    cin>>name2;


    int len1,len2,a;

    len1=strlen(name1);

    len2=strlen(name2);

    bool flag=true;

    if (len1 != len2 )

    cout<<“different”;

    else

    {

    for (a=0; name1[a]==name2;a++);

    if (a==len1)

    cout<<“The same”;

    else

    cout<<“different”;

    }

    }


    Sort an array of integer
    Sort an Array of Integer

    #include<iostream.h>

    int main()

    {

    int arSize = 20;

    int ArrayNumber[arSize];

    int indx;

    for(index=0; index <20; index++)

    {

    cout<<“enter an integer”<<endl;

    cin>>ArrayNumber[index];

    }


    int i,j;

    int temp;

    for( i=1; i< 20;i++)

    for (j=0; j< i;j++)

    if (ArrayNumber[ j] > ArrayNumber[ j+1])

    {

    temp= ArrayNumber[ j ];

    ArrayNumber[ j ]=ArrayNumber[ j+1];

    ArrayNumber[ j+1]=temp;

    }

    }


    ad