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AFRICA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AFRICA. Geography. Mediterranean Sea. Strait of Gibraltar. Red Sea. Gulf of Aden. Gulf of Guinea. Indian Ocean. Atlantic Ocean. Mozambique Channel. Africa has a regular coastline Smooth Few natural ports and harbors Limits trade Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

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Mediterranean Sea

Strait of Gibraltar

Red Sea

Gulf of Aden

Gulf of Guinea

Indian Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Mozambique Channel


Africa has a regular coastline


Few natural ports and harbors

Limits trade

Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

Limited exploration by the Europeans

Helps to isolate Africa


Bodies of Water

  • Lake Victoria

  • Lake Tanganyika

  • Lake Malawi

Great rift valley
Great Rift Valley

  • 4,000 mile canyon in East Africa

  • Natural barrier

  • Site of many archeological discoveries, including “Lucy” or Homo Habilis, by Mary & Louis Leakey.

Great rift valley cont d
Great Rift Valley cont’d

Great Rift Valley

It is believed that Ancient man originated here

Skeleton of “Lucy”- Remains of Ancient Female found in GRV


  • Tall, mostly treeless grasslands that has both a dry and a wet season.

  • Covers approximately 45% of Africa

  • The majority of people & wildlife live in the savanna region.


  • Cover about 40% of Africa

  • Sahara

  • Kalahari

  • Namib

  • Nubian


  • Atlas Mts.

  • Drakensburg Mts.

  • Mt. Kilamanjaro

  • Highest mountains are located in eastern Africa.

Climate zones
Climate Zones

  • Africa has very diverse climate regions.

  • Desert

  • Steppe

  • Savanna

  • Rainforest

  • Mediterranean

Sahara desert
Sahara Desert

Located in Northern Africa

Larger than the United States

Occupies 1/3 of Africa

Not a sandy desert: most of the desert is rock and gravel

Causes geographic isolation

Serves as a natural barrier separating the people of the Sahara and Southern Africa


  • the process of fertile land becoming desert.

  • Causes:

    • Overuse/over farming, overgrazing and over cutting of trees for firewood.

    • Trees and grasses have root systems that hold topsoil in place, without them erosion blows or washes it away, and the land becomes desert.

Desertification con t
Desertification con’t

  • Solutions:

    • Crop rotation: moving one type of crop to a different field each year.

      • Prevents the soil nutrients from being depleted year after year.

    • Planting tree belts also stops wind erosion


  • Nile River

  • Niger R.

  • White Nile

  • Benue R.

  • Blue Nile

  • Congo R.

  • Zambezi R.

  • Victoria Falls

Nile river
Nile River

  • The longest river in the world at 4,180 miles long.

  • It flowsNORTH from the mountainous region of Lake Victoria to the coastal plains of the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Cataracts- places where the river becomes shallow, rocks, rapids and waterfalls prevent navigation

  • Trade/transportation hindered- slowed, prevented by cataracts

Gift of the nile
“Gift of the Nile”

  • It is an annual, predictable flood that provides nutrient rich soil for crops to grow surrounded by desert.

  • Rich soil= silt

  • The Nile River valley was home to one of the world’s first civilizations: Egyptian civilization

    • The Egyptians created their calendar based off the annual overflow of the nile