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Mountain Formation. 1. Mountain Formation. The process of tectonic mountain building is called orogenesis . Mountains are formed by tectonic forces called stress. 2. Types of stress. Tensional – pulling apart Compressional – pushing together

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1 mountain formation
1. Mountain Formation
  • The process of tectonic mountain building is called orogenesis.
  • Mountains are formed by tectonic forces called stress.
2 types of stress
2. Types of stress
  • Tensional – pulling apart
  • Compressional – pushing together
  • Shear – parallel forces, also called “strike slip”
3 types of mountain ranges
3. Types of Mountain Ranges
  • Fault block mountains caused by tensional stresses.
    • Also called Horst and Graben
    • Grand Tetons, Sierra Nevada, Basin and Range
horst and graben
Horst and Graben

Horst

Graben

v types of mountain ranges
V. Types of Mountain Ranges

b. Fold Belt Mountains - caused by compressional stresses

  • largest and most complex mountain systems in the world
  • Alps, Appalachains, Himilayas, Northern Rockies, Urals,
v types of mountain ranges2
V. Types of Mountain Ranges

c. Upwarped Mountains – caused by a broad arching of the crust. Usually caused by a magmatic intrusion lifting the crust.

  • Also called dome mountains
  • Southern Rockies, Black Hills, Adirondacks
v types of mountain ranges3
V. Types of Mountain Ranges

d. Volcanic Mountains – formed by repeated volcanic eruptions

  • Mt Kilamanjaro, Cascade Mountains.
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