Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china
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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China. 753 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Italy. Environment. Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean Rome-crossroads of Italy. Rome’s in 753 B.C.E. Origins. The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills.

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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China

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Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China

753 B.C.E.-600 C.E.





  • Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean

  • Rome-crossroads of Italy

Rome s in 753 b c e

Rome’s in 753 B.C.E.



  • The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city

  • Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills

Social structure

Social structure

  • Basis of society: family, multiple generations + slaves

  • Paterfamilias: absolute power

  • Patricians-rich

  • Plebeians-poor

  • Fights among them: “Conflict of the Order”

On what depended social status political privileges fundamental values

On what depended social status, political privileges, fundamental values?



  • Agricultural society

  • Basis of wealth: land

  • Trade

  • Territory rich in metals (iron): N-W Etruria

Political organization

Political organization

  • 1) Monarchy 753 -507 B.C.E. ( Romulus-Tarquinius Superbus)

  • 2) Roman Republic 507 -31 B.C.E.

  • Rulers: Senate, Council of Elders, several assemblies

  • All male citizens able to attend

Was the roman republic a democracy

Was the Roman Republic a democracy?

Who had the real power?



  • Votes of wealthy counted more than the ones of the poor

  • Senate

Political org

Political org.

  • 450 B.C.E. Conflict of the Order:plebeians refused to work

  • The laws: on 12 stone tablets

  • New officials: tribunes ( lower classes)

What was the purpose of the 12 stone tablets

What was the purpose of the 12 stone tablets?

Was the new structure efficient?

Political org1

Political org.

  • Tribunes- power to block any action of the Assembly that was against the interests of the lower classes

  • Patricians: brought the tribunes into their class.

  • Patron-client relationship:

  • Patron-wealthy, offered protection

  • Clients: poor, political, military support, agric. work



  • Polytheistic

  • Small sacrifices: cakes, wine

  • Jupiter-Zeus, Mars-Ares, Venus-Aphrodita

  • Numina

  • Pax Deorum( Peace of the gods)-covenant between the gods & the Roman state

  • People: sacrifices, gods: protection, success



  • No property

  • Under male authority the whole life

  • Less constrained than Greek women

  • In time they got more rights

  • influence



  • a) in Italy

  • b) in the Mediterranean

Why did the romans expand so much

Why did the Romans expand so much?

Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

  • 1) aggressiveness

  • 2) insecurity-buffer states-further expansion

  • Well organized army; set up camps

  • A) expanded in Italy: conflicts among pastoral tribes & agric. population

  • B) 264-202-conquered Phoenicians

  • expanded in Mediterranean: Sicily, Sardinia, Spain

Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

  • 200-146 wars against Hellenistic kingdoms

  • 59-51 Caesar conquered Gaul (S France)

  • New provinces: local administration & tax collection

  • A senator sent to administer it

  • Romans accorded citizenship to conquered people

Why did the romans accord citizenship to conquered peoples

Why did the Romans accord citizenship to conquered peoples?

The failure of the republic

The failure of the Republic

  • Political causes

  • 1) civil wars( 88-31 B.C.E.)

  • 2)armies were more loyal to their leader than to the state

The failure of the republic1

The failure of the Republic

  • Economical causes

  • 1) the appearance of the latifundia (herds , wine instead of grains)

  • 2) Roman cities became dependent of imported grains

  • 3)peasants-difficulty in finding a job because of the slaves

  • 4) poverty

  • 5) lower no. of eligible soldiers

Octavianus princeps augustus

Octavianus Princeps Augustus

The roman principate 31 b c e 330 c e

The Roman Principate (31 B.C.E.-330 C.E.)

  • Octavian (31 B.C.-14 C.E.)

  • Maintained the forms of the Republic

  • Founded the Principate

  • Military dictator

  • Expanded the empire: Egypt, parts of Middle East, Central Europe

  • After him, the empire was ruled by emperors from different families

The greatest expansion of the roman empire

The greatest expansion of the Roman Empire



  • 1 )Why did he never call himself emperor?

  • 2) How was the throne transmitted into the Roman Empire?

Caesar s death

Caesar’s death

Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

  • 3) Why wasn’t the throne transmitted hereditary?

  • 4) How was the emperor chosen?

  • 5) Why did a cult of worship of the living emperor develop?

  • 6) What was the source of law in the Roman Empire?

Way of life

Way of life

  • 80 % of population lived in villages

  • 20 % in cities; Rome, Alexandria, Carthage

  • Rome

  • Forum, government buildings

  • Temples, gardens

  • Public baths, theaters

  • Rich: town-houses

  • Poor: slums

Roman forum

Roman Forum

Way of life1

Way of life

  • Cities organized based on Rome’s model

  • led by a town council +2 elected officials

  • Pax Romana –period of peace, stability & prosperity during the first 2 centuries C.E. guaranteed by the Roman power

The colosseum

The Colosseum

What was the most enduring consequence of the roman empire

What was the most enduring consequence of the Roman Empire?



  • spread of Latin language and Roman way of life into the conquered territories

  • Factors of Romanization?

Factors of romanization

Factors of Romanization

  • Language

  • Administration

  • Cities-built on Rome’s model

  • Veterans

  • School

  • Christianity

Third century crisis 235 284

Third-Century Crisis (235-284)

  • Political causes:

  • 1) frequent changes of emperors-civil wars-instability

  • 2)attacks from Germanic tribes

Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

  • Economical causes:

  • Inflation

  • Declined of trade

  • Drained treasury

  • Demand of higher taxes-barter economy

Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china

  • Social causes

  • Population moved from cities to villages

  • People find protection in local landowners

How was the crisis solved

How was the crisis solved?

Diocletian 284 305

Diocletian( 284-305)

  • Reforms

  • 1) controlled market prices

  • 2) frozed professional mobility

  • Stopped only temporary the collapse of the Roman Empire

Constantine 306 337

Constantine( 306-337)

  • 312, battle of Milvian Bridge , victory( cross)

  • 313, Edict of Milan (freedom of worship to Christians)

  • Unified the empire under a single religion

  • Moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople

Why did constantine stop the christians persecution

Why did Constantine stop the Christians ’persecution?

The decline of the roman empire

The decline of the Roman Empire

  • 392, emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official & unique religion of the Roman Empire

  • 395 the Roman Empire was divided in 2:

  • Western part-decline

  • Eastern part-flourished, the Byzantine Empire

  • The Western part-attacked by migrating peoples: Germanic tribes( Visigoths, Ostrogoths)

The end of the roman empire

The end of the Roman Empire

  • 476,the Western part collapsed

  • W-divided into many Germanic kingdoms

  • The Eastern part will survive for 1,000 more years under the name the Byzantine Empire



  • Roads

  • Arches

  • Concrete

  • Ballistic weapons

  • Aqueducts

  • System of writing: alphabet

Roman road appian way

Roman road (Appian Way)

Roman aqueduct

Roman Aqueduct

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