Ch 5 an age of empires rome han china
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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China. 753 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Italy. Environment. Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean Rome-crossroads of Italy. Rome’s in 753 B.C.E. Origins. The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills.

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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China

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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China

753 B.C.E.-600 C.E.


Italy


Environment

  • Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean

  • Rome-crossroads of Italy


Rome’s in 753 B.C.E.


Origins

  • The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city

  • Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills


Social structure

  • Basis of society: family, multiple generations + slaves

  • Paterfamilias: absolute power

  • Patricians-rich

  • Plebeians-poor

  • Fights among them: “Conflict of the Order”


On what depended social status, political privileges, fundamental values?


Economy

  • Agricultural society

  • Basis of wealth: land

  • Trade

  • Territory rich in metals (iron): N-W Etruria


Political organization

  • 1) Monarchy 753 -507 B.C.E. ( Romulus-Tarquinius Superbus)

  • 2) Roman Republic 507 -31 B.C.E.

  • Rulers: Senate, Council of Elders, several assemblies

  • All male citizens able to attend


Was the Roman Republic a democracy?

Who had the real power?


Answers

  • Votes of wealthy counted more than the ones of the poor

  • Senate


Political org.

  • 450 B.C.E. Conflict of the Order:plebeians refused to work

  • The laws: on 12 stone tablets

  • New officials: tribunes ( lower classes)


What was the purpose of the 12 stone tablets?

Was the new structure efficient?


Political org.

  • Tribunes- power to block any action of the Assembly that was against the interests of the lower classes

  • Patricians: brought the tribunes into their class.

  • Patron-client relationship:

  • Patron-wealthy, offered protection

  • Clients: poor, political, military support, agric. work


Religion

  • Polytheistic

  • Small sacrifices: cakes, wine

  • Jupiter-Zeus, Mars-Ares, Venus-Aphrodita

  • Numina

  • Pax Deorum( Peace of the gods)-covenant between the gods & the Roman state

  • People: sacrifices, gods: protection, success


Women

  • No property

  • Under male authority the whole life

  • Less constrained than Greek women

  • In time they got more rights

  • influence


Expansion

  • a) in Italy

  • b) in the Mediterranean


Why did the Romans expand so much?


  • 1) aggressiveness

  • 2) insecurity-buffer states-further expansion

  • Well organized army; set up camps

  • A) expanded in Italy: conflicts among pastoral tribes & agric. population

  • B) 264-202-conquered Phoenicians

  • expanded in Mediterranean: Sicily, Sardinia, Spain


  • 200-146 wars against Hellenistic kingdoms

  • 59-51 Caesar conquered Gaul (S France)

  • New provinces: local administration & tax collection

  • A senator sent to administer it

  • Romans accorded citizenship to conquered people


Why did the Romans accord citizenship to conquered peoples?


The failure of the Republic

  • Political causes

  • 1) civil wars( 88-31 B.C.E.)

  • 2)armies were more loyal to their leader than to the state


The failure of the Republic

  • Economical causes

  • 1) the appearance of the latifundia (herds , wine instead of grains)

  • 2) Roman cities became dependent of imported grains

  • 3)peasants-difficulty in finding a job because of the slaves

  • 4) poverty

  • 5) lower no. of eligible soldiers


Octavianus Princeps Augustus


The Roman Principate (31 B.C.E.-330 C.E.)

  • Octavian (31 B.C.-14 C.E.)

  • Maintained the forms of the Republic

  • Founded the Principate

  • Military dictator

  • Expanded the empire: Egypt, parts of Middle East, Central Europe

  • After him, the empire was ruled by emperors from different families


The greatest expansion of the Roman Empire


Questions

  • 1 )Why did he never call himself emperor?

  • 2) How was the throne transmitted into the Roman Empire?


Caesar’s death


  • 3) Why wasn’t the throne transmitted hereditary?

  • 4) How was the emperor chosen?

  • 5) Why did a cult of worship of the living emperor develop?

  • 6) What was the source of law in the Roman Empire?


Way of life

  • 80 % of population lived in villages

  • 20 % in cities; Rome, Alexandria, Carthage

  • Rome

  • Forum, government buildings

  • Temples, gardens

  • Public baths, theaters

  • Rich: town-houses

  • Poor: slums


Roman Forum


Way of life

  • Cities organized based on Rome’s model

  • led by a town council +2 elected officials

  • Pax Romana –period of peace, stability & prosperity during the first 2 centuries C.E. guaranteed by the Roman power


The Colosseum


What was the most enduring consequence of the Roman Empire?


Romanization

  • spread of Latin language and Roman way of life into the conquered territories

  • Factors of Romanization?


Factors of Romanization

  • Language

  • Administration

  • Cities-built on Rome’s model

  • Veterans

  • School

  • Christianity


Third-Century Crisis (235-284)

  • Political causes:

  • 1) frequent changes of emperors-civil wars-instability

  • 2)attacks from Germanic tribes


  • Economical causes:

  • Inflation

  • Declined of trade

  • Drained treasury

  • Demand of higher taxes-barter economy


  • Social causes

  • Population moved from cities to villages

  • People find protection in local landowners


How was the crisis solved?


Diocletian( 284-305)

  • Reforms

  • 1) controlled market prices

  • 2) frozed professional mobility

  • Stopped only temporary the collapse of the Roman Empire


Constantine( 306-337)

  • 312, battle of Milvian Bridge , victory( cross)

  • 313, Edict of Milan (freedom of worship to Christians)

  • Unified the empire under a single religion

  • Moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople


Why did Constantine stop the Christians ’persecution?


The decline of the Roman Empire

  • 392, emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official & unique religion of the Roman Empire

  • 395 the Roman Empire was divided in 2:

  • Western part-decline

  • Eastern part-flourished, the Byzantine Empire

  • The Western part-attacked by migrating peoples: Germanic tribes( Visigoths, Ostrogoths)


The end of the Roman Empire

  • 476,the Western part collapsed

  • W-divided into many Germanic kingdoms

  • The Eastern part will survive for 1,000 more years under the name the Byzantine Empire


Technology

  • Roads

  • Arches

  • Concrete

  • Ballistic weapons

  • Aqueducts

  • System of writing: alphabet


Roman road (Appian Way)


Roman Aqueduct


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