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Ch.5 An Age of Empires: Rome & Han China. 753 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Italy. Environment. Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean Rome-crossroads of Italy. Rome’s in 753 B.C.E. Origins. The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills.

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Environment
Environment

  • Italy-crossroads of Mediterranean

  • Rome-crossroads of Italy



Origins
Origins

  • The legend: Romulus & Remus-grown by a she-wolf, founded the city

  • Rome –founded in 753 B.C. on 7 hills


Social structure
Social structure

  • Basis of society: family, multiple generations + slaves

  • Paterfamilias: absolute power

  • Patricians-rich

  • Plebeians-poor

  • Fights among them: “Conflict of the Order”



Economy
Economy fundamental values?

  • Agricultural society

  • Basis of wealth: land

  • Trade

  • Territory rich in metals (iron): N-W Etruria


Political organization
Political organization fundamental values?

  • 1) Monarchy 753 -507 B.C.E. ( Romulus-Tarquinius Superbus)

  • 2) Roman Republic 507 -31 B.C.E.

  • Rulers: Senate, Council of Elders, several assemblies

  • All male citizens able to attend


Was the roman republic a democracy

Was the Roman Republic a democracy? fundamental values?

Who had the real power?


Answers
Answers fundamental values?

  • Votes of wealthy counted more than the ones of the poor

  • Senate


Political org
Political org. fundamental values?

  • 450 B.C.E. Conflict of the Order:plebeians refused to work

  • The laws: on 12 stone tablets

  • New officials: tribunes ( lower classes)


What was the purpose of the 12 stone tablets

What was the purpose of the 12 stone tablets? fundamental values?

Was the new structure efficient?


Political org1
Political org. fundamental values?

  • Tribunes- power to block any action of the Assembly that was against the interests of the lower classes

  • Patricians: brought the tribunes into their class.

  • Patron-client relationship:

  • Patron-wealthy, offered protection

  • Clients: poor, political, military support, agric. work


Religion
Religion fundamental values?

  • Polytheistic

  • Small sacrifices: cakes, wine

  • Jupiter-Zeus, Mars-Ares, Venus-Aphrodita

  • Numina

  • Pax Deorum( Peace of the gods)-covenant between the gods & the Roman state

  • People: sacrifices, gods: protection, success


Women
Women fundamental values?

  • No property

  • Under male authority the whole life

  • Less constrained than Greek women

  • In time they got more rights

  • influence


Expansion
Expansion fundamental values?

  • a) in Italy

  • b) in the Mediterranean



  • 1) aggressiveness fundamental values?

  • 2) insecurity-buffer states-further expansion

  • Well organized army; set up camps

  • A) expanded in Italy: conflicts among pastoral tribes & agric. population

  • B) 264-202-conquered Phoenicians

  • expanded in Mediterranean: Sicily, Sardinia, Spain


  • 200-146 wars against Hellenistic kingdoms fundamental values?

  • 59-51 Caesar conquered Gaul (S France)

  • New provinces: local administration & tax collection

  • A senator sent to administer it

  • Romans accorded citizenship to conquered people



The failure of the republic
The failure of the Republic fundamental values?

  • Political causes

  • 1) civil wars( 88-31 B.C.E.)

  • 2)armies were more loyal to their leader than to the state


The failure of the republic1
The failure of the Republic fundamental values?

  • Economical causes

  • 1) the appearance of the latifundia (herds , wine instead of grains)

  • 2) Roman cities became dependent of imported grains

  • 3)peasants-difficulty in finding a job because of the slaves

  • 4) poverty

  • 5) lower no. of eligible soldiers


Octavianus princeps augustus
Octavianus Princeps Augustus fundamental values?


The roman principate 31 b c e 330 c e
The Roman fundamental values?Principate (31 B.C.E.-330 C.E.)

  • Octavian (31 B.C.-14 C.E.)

  • Maintained the forms of the Republic

  • Founded the Principate

  • Military dictator

  • Expanded the empire: Egypt, parts of Middle East, Central Europe

  • After him, the empire was ruled by emperors from different families



Questions
Questions fundamental values?

  • 1 )Why did he never call himself emperor?

  • 2) How was the throne transmitted into the Roman Empire?


Caesar s death
Caesar’s death fundamental values?



Way of life
Way of life fundamental values?

  • 80 % of population lived in villages

  • 20 % in cities; Rome, Alexandria, Carthage

  • Rome

  • Forum, government buildings

  • Temples, gardens

  • Public baths, theaters

  • Rich: town-houses

  • Poor: slums


Roman forum
Roman Forum fundamental values?


Way of life1
Way of life fundamental values?

  • Cities organized based on Rome’s model

  • led by a town council +2 elected officials

  • Pax Romana –period of peace, stability & prosperity during the first 2 centuries C.E. guaranteed by the Roman power


The colosseum
The Colosseum fundamental values?



Romanization
Romanization fundamental values?

  • spread of Latin language and Roman way of life into the conquered territories

  • Factors of Romanization?


Factors of romanization
Factors of Romanization fundamental values?

  • Language

  • Administration

  • Cities-built on Rome’s model

  • Veterans

  • School

  • Christianity


Third century crisis 235 284
Third-Century Crisis (235-284) fundamental values?

  • Political causes:

  • 1) frequent changes of emperors-civil wars-instability

  • 2)attacks from Germanic tribes


  • Economical causes: fundamental values?

  • Inflation

  • Declined of trade

  • Drained treasury

  • Demand of higher taxes-barter economy


  • Social causes fundamental values?

  • Population moved from cities to villages

  • People find protection in local landowners


How was the crisis solved

How was the crisis solved? fundamental values?


Diocletian 284 305
Diocletian( 284-305) fundamental values?

  • Reforms

  • 1) controlled market prices

  • 2) frozed professional mobility

  • Stopped only temporary the collapse of the Roman Empire


Constantine 306 337
Constantine( 306-337) fundamental values?

  • 312, battle of Milvian Bridge , victory( cross)

  • 313, Edict of Milan (freedom of worship to Christians)

  • Unified the empire under a single religion

  • Moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople



The decline of the roman empire
The decline of the Roman Empire fundamental values?

  • 392, emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official & unique religion of the Roman Empire

  • 395 the Roman Empire was divided in 2:

  • Western part-decline

  • Eastern part-flourished, the Byzantine Empire

  • The Western part-attacked by migrating peoples: Germanic tribes( Visigoths, Ostrogoths)


The end of the roman empire
The end of the Roman Empire fundamental values?

  • 476,the Western part collapsed

  • W-divided into many Germanic kingdoms

  • The Eastern part will survive for 1,000 more years under the name the Byzantine Empire


Technology
Technology fundamental values?

  • Roads

  • Arches

  • Concrete

  • Ballistic weapons

  • Aqueducts

  • System of writing: alphabet


Roman road appian way
Roman road (Appian Way) fundamental values?


Roman aqueduct
Roman Aqueduct fundamental values?


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