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Response to Intervention III SW Behavioral Assessment. George Sugai Director CBER Co-Director Center on PBIS www.CBER.org www.PBIS.org. PURPOSE Extend RtI discussion from individual/classroom to school-wide data-based decision making & interventions. Brief RtI-SWPBS Review

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Response to Intervention III SW Behavioral Assessment

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Response to Intervention IIISW Behavioral Assessment

George Sugai

Director CBER

Co-Director Center on PBIS

www.CBER.org www.PBIS.org


PURPOSE

Extend RtI discussion from individual/classroom to school-widedata-based decision making & interventions

  • Brief RtI-SWPBS Review

  • SW data-based decision making

  • Data-based interventions


www.cber.org


www.pbis.org


BIG IDEA

Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, & scalable

(Zins & Ponti, 1990)


Evaluation Criteria


Integrated

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


RtI


RtI: Good “IDEiA” Policy

Approach or framework for redesigning & establishing teaching & learning environments that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable for all students, families & educators

  • NOT program, curriculum, strategy, intervention

  • NOT limited to special education

  • NOT new


Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

ALL

~80% of Students


RTI

Continuum of Support for ALL

Few

Some

All

Dec 7, 2007


Questions to Ponder

  • What is “scientifically/evidence-based” intervention/practice?

  • How do we measure & ensure “fidelity of implementation?”

  • How do we determine “non-responsiveness?”

  • Can we affect “teacher practice?”

  • Do we have motivation to increase efficiency of “systems” organization?

  • ???


Possible RtI OutcomesGresham, 2005


Avoiding False +/-


Need for….


Behaviorism

Laws of Behavior

SWPBS Conceptual Foundations

ABA

Applied Behavioral Technology

PBS

Social Validity

SWPBS

All Students


Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

ALL

~80% of Students


Team

GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

Agreements

Data-based

Action Plan

Evaluation

Implementation


VIOLENCE PREVENTION

  • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001)

  • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003)

  • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006)

  • White House Conference on School Violence (2006)

  • Positive, predictable school-wide climate

  • High rates of academic & social success

  • Formal social skills instruction

  • Positive active supervision & reinforcement

  • Positive adult role models

  • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort


SWPBS

Practices

School-wide

Classroom

  • Smallest #

  • Evidence-based

  • Biggest, durable effect

Family

Non-classroom

Student


School-wide

  • Leadership team

  • Behavior purpose statement

  • Set of positive expectations & behaviors

  • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

  • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations

  • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation


Non-classroom

  • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged

  • Active supervision by all staff

    • Scan, move, interact

  • Precorrections & reminders

  • Positive reinforcement


Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008).


Classroom

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged

  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged

  • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction

  • Active supervision

  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors

  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors

  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum


Allday & Pakurar (2007)


Class B Results

Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

School Days


Check In/Out Pt Card

Name________________ Date ________

Goal _____

Pts Possible _____

Pts Received_____

% of Pts _____

Goal Met? Y N

Rating Scale

2 = Great

1 = Ok

0 = Goal Not Met


Class B Results + Composite Peers

Peer

Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

Peer

Peer

School Days


Study 2 Results

Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

School Days


Study 2 Results + Composite Peer

Peer

Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

Peer

Peer

Peer

School Days


  • Individual Student

  • Behavioral competence at school & district levels

  • Function-based behavior support planning

  • Team- & data-based decision making

  • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes

  • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction

  • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations


Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005


Family

  • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families

  • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements

  • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner

  • Access to system of integrated school & community resources


ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • Function-based support

  • Wraparound

  • Person-centered planning

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • Check in/out

  • Targeted social skills instruction

  • Peer-based supports

  • Social skills club

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • Teach SW expectations

  • Proactive SW discipline

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Effective instruction

  • Parent engagement

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

~80% of Students


ESTABLISHING A CONTINUUM of SWPBS

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • Function-based support

  • Wraparound/PCP

  • Specialized individualised supports

  • Practice Selection

  • Evidence-based

  • Measurable outcome aligned with need & student

  • Rules for data-based decisions

  • Integrated with related practices based on outcomes, need, student

  • Implementation fidelity

  • Continuous monitoring

Audit

Identify existing practices by tier

Specify outcome for each effort

Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness

Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes

Establish decision rules (RtI)

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • Check in/out

  • Targeted social skills instruction

  • Peer-based supports

  • Social skills club

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • Teach & encourage positive SW expectations

  • Proactive SW discipline

  • Effective instruction

  • Parent engagement

~80% of Students


Self-Assessment

Efficient

Systems of Data

Management

Existing

Discipline

Data

Data-based

Action Plan

Team-based

Decision

Making

Multiple

Systems

Evidence-

Based

Practices

SWIS


Office Discipline Referrals

  • Definition

    • Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction

    • Underestimation of actual behavior

  • Improving usefulness & value

    • Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions

    • Distinction between office v. classroom managed

    • Continuum of behavior support

    • Positive school-wide foundations

    • W/in school comparisons


Referrals by Problem Behavior


Referrals per Location


Referrals per Student


Referrals by Time of Day


www.swis.org


05%

20%

11%

22%

84%

58%

SWPBS schools are more preventive


04%

14%

08%

17%

88%

69%

SWPBS schools are more preventive


SWIS summary 07-08 July 2, 20082,717 sch, 1,377,989 stds; 1,232,826 Maj ODRs


National ODR/ISS/OSS July 2008


July 2, 2008

ODR rates vary by level


July 2, 2008


Pre

Post


Elementary School

Suspension Rate


Elementary School


Middle School

Suspension Rate


Middle School


FC, MD Trends in Suspension Rates for PBS Schools Implementing w/ Fidelity & Maturity


FC, MD Trends in Black & Hispanic Suspension Rates for PBS Schools Implementing w/ Fidelity & Maturity


www.pbis.org

Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2008). Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Support.


90-School StudyHorner et al., in press

  • Schools that receive technical assistance from typical support personnel implement SWPBS with fidelity

  • Fidelity SWPBS is associated with

    • Low levels of ODR

      • .29/100/day v. national mean .34

  • Improved perception of safety of the school

    • reduced risk factor

  • Increased proportion of 3rd graders who meet state reading standard.


  • Project Target: Preliminary FindingsBradshaw & Leaf, in press

    • PBIS (21 v. 16) schools reached & sustained high fidelity

    • PBIS increased all aspects of organizational health

    • Positive effects/trends for student outcomes

      • Fewer students with 1 or more ODRs (majors + minors)

      • Fewer ODRs (majors + minors)

      • Fewer ODRs for truancy

      • Fewer suspensions

      • Increasing trend in % of students scoring in advanced & proficient range of state achievement test


    N = 128

    N = 59

    12 schools

    25 schools


    N = 59

    12 schools

    N = 128

    25 schools


    4J School District

    Eugene, Oregon

    Change in the percentage of students meeting the state standard in reading at grade 3 from 97-98 to 01-02 for schools using PBIS all four years and those that did not.


    Schools using SW-PBS report a 25% lower rate of ODRs

    .85

    .64


    N =23

    N = 8

    N = 8

    N = 23


    ODR Instruc. BenefitSpringfield MS, MD

    2001-2002 2277

    2002-2003 1322

    = 955 42% improvement

    = 42,975 min. @ 45 min.

    = 716.25 hrs

    = 119 days Instruc. time


    ODR Admin. BenefitSpringfield MS, MD

    2001-2002 2277

    2002-2003 1322

    = 955 42% improvement

    = 14,325 min. @15 min.

    = 238.75 hrs

    = 40 days Admin. time


    “Mom, Dad, Auntie, & Jason”

    In a school where over 45% of 400 elem. students receive free-reduced lunch, >750 family members attended Family Fun Night.


    I like workin’ at school

    After implementing SW-PBS, Principal at Jesse Bobo Elementary reports that teacher absences dropped from 414 (2002-2003) to 263 (2003-2004).


    “I like it here.”

    Over past 3 years, 0 teacher requests for transfers


    “She can read!”

    With minutes reclaimed from improvements in proactive SW discipline, elementary school invests in improving school-wide literacy.

    Result: >85% of students in 3rd grade are reading at/above grade level.


    “We found some minutes?”

    After reducing their office discipline referrals from 400 to 100, middle school students requiring individualized, specialized behavior intervention plans decreased from 35 to 6.


    PBIS Messages

    • Measurable & justifiable outcomes

    • On-going data-based decision making

    • Evidence-based practices

    • Systems ensuring durable, high fidelity of implementation


    George.sugai@uconn.edu

    Robh@uoregon.edu

    www.CBER.org www.PBIS.org


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