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MINERAL NUTRITION. MINERAL NUTRITION & ORGANIC SUBSTANCES CONCERNING DYE & FLAVOURS. 2 o Metabolites. 1. DYE = PIGMENTS. - Chlorophyll (green) - Carotenoids (yellow - red) - Xanthophyll (=oxygenated carotene).

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MINERAL NUTRITION

MINERAL NUTRITION & ORGANIC SUBSTANCES CONCERNING DYE & FLAVOURS

2o Metabolites

1. DYE = PIGMENTS

- Chlorophyll (green)

- Carotenoids (yellow - red)

- Xanthophyll (=oxygenated carotene)

Caroteneprotectchlorophyll from Photodestruction (Albino turns green under dim light) & insect attractant in flower


MINERAL NUTRITION

2.Flavour = Aroma + Taste

Aroma = essential oil / volatile oil

= essence at room temp.

- Alcohol, ether, aldehyde

- Terpenoids


MINERAL NUTRITION

Taste

Sweet = glucose , fructose , sucrose ete.

Sour = - organic acid (kreb’s cycle)

(i.e. citric acid in lemon)

- aromatic acid

Pungent = i.e. capsaicin, piperine

Bitter = alkaloids , terpenoid

Astringent = tannin


MINERAL NUTRITION

Pigments, odour & Taste substance are :

1. 2ometabolite product after photosynthate occurred through metabolic pathway

2. waste material in vacuole


MINERAL NUTRITION

Relation to Mineral Nutrition

1. Pn & Carbon skeleton Production

2. Enzyme synthesis & activities

3. Turgidity/Osmotic regulation

4. Product translocation

5. Energy supply for synthesizing and degradation

6. Stage of development & accumulation


MINERAL NUTRITION

MINERAL NUTRITION & PHYTOHORMONE

1. AUXIN

Metabolism

- produced in active meristematic tissue

(buds, young leaves & fruits)

- immobilization by photo oxidation, enzyme oxidation

(IAA - oxidase)

- Peroxidation reduce Auxin activity (+O2)


MINERAL NUTRITION

Plant response

- Cellular effect : - increase DNA, RNA protein & enzyme

- increase proton exchange & K uptake

- influence phytochrome reaction to red -

far - red light

- Necessary for callus growth (tissue culture, gall - , nodule tissue)

- Rooting in plant cutting

- Delay leaf & fruit abscission


MINERAL NUTRITION

Agricultural use

- 2,4 - D, 2, 4, 5 - T , MCPA (herbicide)

- prevent fruit drop, induce ethylene formation (NAA)

- thinning fruit for prevent biennial bearing

- rooting compound

- prevention of sprouting in potato


MINERAL NUTRITION

Minerals & Auxin

- IAA effect proton - pump by effect proton transport through cell wall

(i.e. K+ uptake > Na+ > Li+)

Salt resistant effect

- Ca2+ necessary for Auxin - transport

(Auxin & Ca2+ redistribution)

- Zn2+ necessary for tryptophan synthesis


MINERAL NUTRITION

2. GIBBERELLINS

Metabolism

- biosynthesis in immature fruit & seed, bud, leaf & root

- bound form in seed is freed through soaking, chilling

- vernalization (seed)

stratification (bud)

increase GAs


MINERAL NUTRITION

Plant response

- act synergistically with auxin in apical dorminance, cambium growth, geotroprism, parthenocarpy, increase fruit - set

- internode growth of dwarf plant

- replace stratification


MINERAL NUTRITION

Minerals & Gibberellin

- GA3 increase membrane permeability, cause monovalent ion lost and transportation of ion from root

- GA3 increase K+ transport

- Zn & GA3 : positive correlation


MINERAL NUTRITION

3. CYTOKININ

Metabolism :

- produced in root

- translocate through transpiration stream

- buds stronger sink than leaf


MINERAL NUTRITION

Pl. response

- Adventitious bud formation (Cyt. + Auxin)

- inhibit root initial formation in stem cutting (Auxin stimulate)

- delay senescence (Chlorophyll retention, protein & amino acid retention)


MINERAL NUTRITION

Mineral & cytokinin

- effect on protein synthesis, cellwall & cell membrane synthesis and sugar metabolism

- translocation of Fe from root

- ion flux into root stimulate but ion efflux and water transport out of root reduce

- N - application increase cytokinin synthesis in root

- regulate ion secretion from salt gland


MINERAL NUTRITION

Agricultural use

- Control flowering, enhance growth & productivity

- Enhance germination & emergence

- Produce sterile male for hybrid seed industry (corn)

- Seedless

- amylase activity in malt industry


MINERAL NUTRITION

4. GROWTH INHIBITOR

3 groups :

Nature

1) ABA

2) Benzoic - , phenolic acid & lactone (seed dormancy)

Synthetic retardant

3) - ammonium salt (Amo - 1618), phosphon - D

- SADH or daminozide

- Chlormeguat chloride (CCC)

- Morphactin (flurecol & chloro flurecol)


MINERAL NUTRITION

Metabolism

GA, ABA, cyt., chlorophyll, carotene & Xantophyll produced through “Mevalonic acid & isoprene pathway”

Agricultural use

- growth retardant

SADH, CCC, Phosfon - D & morphactin

- reduce lodging & vegetative growth

- TIBA = IAA inhibitor (transport)

- Defoliant before harvesting

- inhibit axillary shoot development


MINERAL NUTRITION

Pl. response to ABA

- dormancy mechanism of bud & seed for survival

- leaf abscission

- GA/ABA ration in dormancy and germination after

stratification

- stomata closure

- inhibit K uptake & proton extrusion

- inhibit hydrolytic enzyme activity

- inhibit flowering of long - day plant


MINERAL NUTRITION

Minerals & ABA

- inhibit K uptake into guard cell stomata close

- inhibit K uptake reduceAmylase activity

- effect ion transport, ion accumulation and selectivity

of ion into preserve organ


MINERAL NUTRITION

5. Ethylene

Metabolism

- increase by Auxin application 2, 4 - D increase ethylene

content in tissue upto 50 fold

- increase in ripening & stress tissue

Pl. Response

- reduce elongation, increase stem diameter & ageotropic of

seedling during germination

- leaf & flower senescence (AgNO3 = anti ethylene activity)


MINERAL NUTRITION

Agricultural use of Ethylene

- Limit because of gas - form

- Liquid form = ethephon

- Suppress growth of seedling in starting bed = 10 days

- Break seed dormancy


MINERAL NUTRITION

Agricultural use

- increase fruit - set & Fruit size (grape & apple)

- Promote seed germination (Lettuce seed)

- Tissue & pollen culture breeding

End…


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