Respiratory system overview
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Respiratory System Overview. F ‘08 P. Andrews, Instructor. Respiration and Ventilation - It’s just breathing, isn’t it?. Respiration Exchange of gases between an organism and it’s environment Pulmonary (external) respiration Occurs in lungs Cellular (internal) respiration

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Respiratory System Overview

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Respiratory system overview

Respiratory System Overview

F ‘08

P. Andrews, Instructor


Respiration and ventilation it s just breathing isn t it

Respiration and Ventilation -It’s just breathing, isn’t it?

  • Respiration

    • Exchange of gases between an organism and it’s environment

    • Pulmonary (external) respiration

      • Occurs in lungs

    • Cellular (internal) respiration

      • Occurs in peripheral capillaries

      • Is the exchange of respiratory gases between RBCs and tissue

      • Produces CO2

  • Ventilation

    • The mechanical process that moves air into and out of lungs


The structure

The structure

  • The thorax

    • Moves air in and out

    • Oxygen and CO2 are exchanged

    • Also contains heart, major vessels, trachea, bronchi, lungs, mediastinum


Respiratory system overview

  • Ventilations are controlled by a series of centers in the brain and blood vessels

    • Main control center – medulla oblongata

      • Connected to respiratory muscles via VAGUS NERVE

    • Additional control center – pons

      • Apneustic center

      • Pneumotoxic center


Hering breuer reflex learn it

Hering – Breuer reflex – learn it!

  • Stretch receptors

    • Decrease inspiratory stimulus


Chemorecepors

Chemorecepors

  • In the medulla and carotid bodies and arch of the aorta

    • Stimulated by changes in O2 and CO2 as well as pH


Hypoxic drive

Hypoxic drive

  • Hyoxemia is a profound stimulus of respiration in a normal person

  • People with COPD retain CO2 – have chronically elevated PaCO2

  • Peripheral chemoreceptors become used to this; CNS stops using PaCO2 to regulate.

  • A default mechanism – HYPOXIC DRIVE – is activated

    • Increased respiratory stimulation when PaO2 falls; inhibited respiratory stimulation when PaO2 climbs


Respiratory system overview

  • Major muscles of respiration

    • Intercostal muscles

    • Diaphragm

    • Sternocleidomastoid muscles

  • Accessory muscles are also used

    • Scalene muscles

    • Anterior abdominal muscles

    • Rhomboid muscles

    • Cough reflex relies on latissimusdorsi muscles


Whew take a breath

Whew – take a breath!

  • Sternocleidomastoid muscles

    • raise upper rib and sternum

  • Intercostal muscles contract

    • elevate ribs and increase anterior-posterior dimension

  • Diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration – it contracts and flattens

    • increases volume of cavity.

  • Pressure in cavity becomes less than atmospheric

    • air rushes in to alveoli to equalize pressure


Ok breathe out

Ok…. Breathe out!

  • Muscles relax…

    • Diaphragm moves upward

    • Ribs and sternum move inferiorly

    • Ribs move closer together in inferior and posterior position

  • Thoracic volume decreases

    • Intrathoracic pressure increases


T s all connected

T's all connected!

  • Changing volume and pressure of thoracic cage also helps with

    • Pumping blood to and return from systemic circulation

    • Affects BP and pulse strength

  • Normally, systolic BP and pulse strength fall during inspiration, rise during exhalation


What s normal

What's normal?

  • Adults – 12 – 24 breaths per min.

  • Children – 18 – 24 breaths per min.

  • Infants – 40 – 60 breaths per min.


You must also know

You must also know

  • Total lung capacity – TLC

    • ~ 6 L

  • Tidal Volume – VT

    • ~ 500 ml (5 – 7 ml/kg)

    • Dead space volume – VD

      • ~ 150 ml

    • Alveolar Volume – VA

      • ~ 350 ml

  • Minute volume - Vmin


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