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Respiratory System Overview. F ‘08 P. Andrews, Instructor. Respiration and Ventilation - It’s just breathing, isn’t it?. Respiration Exchange of gases between an organism and it’s environment Pulmonary (external) respiration Occurs in lungs Cellular (internal) respiration

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respiratory system overview

Respiratory System Overview

F ‘08

P. Andrews, Instructor

respiration and ventilation it s just breathing isn t it
Respiration and Ventilation -It’s just breathing, isn’t it?
  • Respiration
    • Exchange of gases between an organism and it’s environment
    • Pulmonary (external) respiration
      • Occurs in lungs
    • Cellular (internal) respiration
      • Occurs in peripheral capillaries
      • Is the exchange of respiratory gases between RBCs and tissue
      • Produces CO2
  • Ventilation
    • The mechanical process that moves air into and out of lungs
the structure
The structure
  • The thorax
      • Moves air in and out
      • Oxygen and CO2 are exchanged
      • Also contains heart, major vessels, trachea, bronchi, lungs, mediastinum
slide4

Ventilations are controlled by a series of centers in the brain and blood vessels

    • Main control center – medulla oblongata
      • Connected to respiratory muscles via VAGUS NERVE
    • Additional control center – pons
      • Apneustic center
      • Pneumotoxic center
hering breuer reflex learn it
Hering – Breuer reflex – learn it!
  • Stretch receptors
    • Decrease inspiratory stimulus
chemorecepors
Chemorecepors
  • In the medulla and carotid bodies and arch of the aorta
    • Stimulated by changes in O2 and CO2 as well as pH
hypoxic drive
Hypoxic drive
  • Hyoxemia is a profound stimulus of respiration in a normal person
  • People with COPD retain CO2 – have chronically elevated PaCO2
  • Peripheral chemoreceptors become used to this; CNS stops using PaCO2 to regulate.
  • A default mechanism – HYPOXIC DRIVE – is activated
    • Increased respiratory stimulation when PaO2 falls; inhibited respiratory stimulation when PaO2 climbs
slide8

Major muscles of respiration

    • Intercostal muscles
    • Diaphragm
    • Sternocleidomastoid muscles
  • Accessory muscles are also used
    • Scalene muscles
    • Anterior abdominal muscles
    • Rhomboid muscles
    • Cough reflex relies on latissimusdorsi muscles
whew take a breath
Whew – take a breath!
  • Sternocleidomastoid muscles
    • raise upper rib and sternum
  • Intercostal muscles contract
    • elevate ribs and increase anterior-posterior dimension
  • Diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration – it contracts and flattens
    • increases volume of cavity.
  • Pressure in cavity becomes less than atmospheric
    • air rushes in to alveoli to equalize pressure
ok breathe out
Ok…. Breathe out!
  • Muscles relax…
    • Diaphragm moves upward
    • Ribs and sternum move inferiorly
    • Ribs move closer together in inferior and posterior position
  • Thoracic volume decreases
    • Intrathoracic pressure increases
t s all connected
T\'s all connected!
  • Changing volume and pressure of thoracic cage also helps with
    • Pumping blood to and return from systemic circulation
    • Affects BP and pulse strength
  • Normally, systolic BP and pulse strength fall during inspiration, rise during exhalation
what s normal
What\'s normal?
  • Adults – 12 – 24 breaths per min.
  • Children – 18 – 24 breaths per min.
  • Infants – 40 – 60 breaths per min.
you must also know
You must also know
  • Total lung capacity – TLC
    • ~ 6 L
  • Tidal Volume – VT
    • ~ 500 ml (5 – 7 ml/kg)
    • Dead space volume – VD
      • ~ 150 ml
    • Alveolar Volume – VA
      • ~ 350 ml
  • Minute volume - Vmin
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