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PREVENTING READING DIFFICULTIES IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS . ACHIEVEMENT GAP. INCREASE ACCESS. Oral Language Read to African American students Talk to/with them (positive v negative) Discuss stuff with them BOOKS Informational/Expository Text Student’s own culture

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PREVENTING READING DIFFICULTIES IN

AFRICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS

ACHIEVEMENT GAP


Phyllis C. Hunter Consulting, Inc.


Phyllis C. Hunter Consulting, Inc.


INCREASE ACCESS

Oral Language

  • Read to African American students

  • Talk to/with them (positive v negative)

  • Discuss stuff with them

    BOOKS

  • Informational/Expository Text

  • Student’s own culture

  • Whole class discussions and reflections

    Neighborhood Resources

  • Library card

  • Church tutoring

  • High school cross age tutors

  • Activities that expose the real world

  • Real Men Read


Phyllis C. Hunter Consulting, Inc.


Phyllis C. Hunter Consulting, Inc.


Oral Language is Key

  • Eggplant story


Oral Language

Is So Important to Reading

And You Can Develop IT!

10

  • Prompts for scaffolding and extending oral descriptions

  • Name / Label

  • Color

  • Composition

  • Size

  • Parts

  • Use or Function

  • Comparison

  • Personal Experience

  • Remote Experience

  • Use it in a sentence or story

A Phyllis C. Hunter Top Ten List


Using Precise Language


Using Precise Language


Black or White Something to Think About

  • The Doll Test

  • Columbus

  • Fourth of July

  • Slaves or enslaved


  • Black Books Galore's Guide to Great African American Children's Books - Paperback (Sept. 8, 1998) by Donna Rand, Toni Trent Parker, and Sheila Foster


Does Reading Need a Bailout?

Money is not the only answer, but it makes a difference.

- Barack Obama


CHANGE

Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.- Barack Obama


We have an obligation and a responsibility to be investing in our students and our schools. We must make sure that people who have the grades, the desire and the will, but not the money, can still get the best education possible.

- Barack Obama


GOAL

E

very student with the literacy skills to succeed in challenging courses, meet academic standards, and graduate from high school prepared for college.


A Good Speech

  • Tell 'em what you going to tell 'em. Tell 'em. Tell 'em what you told 'em


Tell Them

  • Good won’t do when better is possible

  • 6 considerations when teaching reading

  • What to do with the money when you don’t have


Phyllis C. Hunterisms

  • Read and talk a lot to and with students.

  • Alphabetic materials from 0-3 years are a must.

  • Intervene early and often with a proven program

  • When you’re through changing you're through! Every teacher well prepared and knowledgeable. Good won’t do when better is possible

  • What scientific research needs is a good book !

  • Change can happen quickly.

  • Programs don’t teach! Teachers do!

  • Is it Dyslexia or distaughtia?

  • Put Your Heart into It!!!


President Obama Vice President Biden

Secretary Duncan

  • “Zero to Five “

  • Reform No Child Left Behind (If they can get to it)

  • Create the American Opportunity Tax Credit

The Obama-Biden plan will restore the promise of America’s public education,

And ensure that American children lead the world in achievement, creativity and success


Six Dimensions of Reading

Phonemic Awareness

1

Systematic Phonics

2

Motivation

6

Vocabulary and Back-ground Knowledge

3

Fluency

5

Comprehension

4


1

Phonemic

Awareness


2

Systematic Phonics


3

Fluency


4

Vocabulary

&

Background

Knowledge


5

Comprehension


6

Motivation


Six dimensions of reading from the Reading Excellence Act

1. Phonemic awareness - Skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds, are connected to print.

2. Systematic phonics - Ability to decode unfamiliar words.


Six dimensions of readingfrom the Reading Excellence Act

3. Background knowledge and vocabulary - Sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension.

4. Fluency - The ability to read fluently.


Six dimensions of readingfrom the Reading Excellence Act

5. Comprehension - The development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning from print.

6. Motivation - The development and maintenance of a motivation to read.


“A classroom library should support, enhance, and elevate. It escalates learning by giving students opportunities for reading practice.”- Phyllis C. Hunter


READING IS MY CIVIL RIGHT!


READING IS MY CIVIL RIGHT!


AND

YOU ARE

THE NEW Civil Rights ACTIVISTS


EVERY TEACHER IS A READING TEACHER????

AGREE

DISAGREE


Teachers Matter Hugely


Grade 10 Writing Assignment

Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.


Grade 10 Writing Assignment

A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.


The 9 Big Ideas

  • Change Focus to specific teaching of Reading in grades 4-12

  • Offer more Reading Curricula/Programs 4-12

  • Increase effort and infrastructure to provide administrative and logistical support at the Secondary School level

  • Increase opportunities for content-focused coaching and support for teachers at the classroom level

  • Use more assessment data to show effects of the efforts


Big Ideas To Implement

  • Specific Reading support for (some / not all) ELL, Black, Hispanic, Native American and poor students.

  • Coordinate resources to fund program purchase, coaching , site visits, substitutes , assessments.

  • Extend the school day and school year learning opportunities

  • Enlist students in the pursuit of Reading as their New Civil Right


Dr. Ron Edmonds’ Quote

"We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need in order to do this. Whether we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven't so far."

1980


“Closing the ACHIEVEMENT Gap : The Next Chapter in Brown v Board of Education”


Dying Jobs

  • The BLS (federal Bureau of Labor Statistics) projects the jobs with the highest percentage of decline during the period 2004 to 2016 .

    Those jobs are:

  • Stock clerks , order fillers and clerks

  • Sewing machine operators

  • Mail clerks (including postal service workers)

  • Computer operators (although I believe this translates to word processor)

  • Secretaries (excluding legal, medical, and executive)

  • Telemarketers

  • Word processors

  • Credit workers

  • Since the recession - Wall Street, finance and construction have been added to the list.


Racing To the Top?

Students can’t win without expert reading instruction.


The Race to the Top Fund

provides competitive grants to encourage and reward States that are creating the conditions for education innovation and reform; implementing ambitious plans in the four education reform areas described in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA); and achieving significant improvement in student outcomes, including making substantial gains in student achievement, closing achievement gaps, improving high school graduation rates, and ensuring that students are prepared for success in college and careers.


The “Blueprint for Reform”

  • Providing equity and opportunity for all students

  • Implementing college- and career- ready standards

  • Improving teacher and principal effectiveness

  • Raising the bar for learning and achievement and rewarding excellence

  • Promoting innovations and continuous improvement


Phyllis C. Hunterisms

  • Read and talk a lot to and with students.

  • Intervene early and often with a proven program

  • When you’re through changing you're through! Every teacher well prepared and knowledgeable. Good won’t do when better is possible

  • What scientific research needs is a good book !

  • Change can happen quickly.

  • Programs don’t teach! Teachers do!

  • Give students what they want . . . real world and academic rigor

  • Is it Dyslexia or distaughtia?

  • Put Your Heart into It!!!


Question:

If some schools can teach their kids to read on Grade Level, why can’t ALL the schools in a district do it?


Question:

If some principals can envision the demise of the achievement gap in their school . . .

Why can’t every school teach all children so that they learn at high levels?


GOAL

E

very student with the literacy skills to succeed in challenging courses, meet academic standards, and graduate from high school prepared for college.


Raise Graduation Rates by teaching students to read!


What Is The Problem?

  • 17.5% of students will encounter reading problems in their first 3 years of school

    The National Reading Panel Progress Report, 1999


What Is The Problem?

  • 75% of students identified with reading problems in third grade are still reading disabled in ninth grade.

  • Hodgkinson, 1992


What Is The Problem?

70% of 8th. graders can’t read at grade level , and most will never catch up.

http://broadeducation.org/about/crisis_stats.html


What Is The Problem?

  • 44% of the students in the United States read below the basic level

    • These students have little or no mastery of knowledge and skills necessary to perform work at grade level.

  • Nation assessment of educational progress NAEP, 1994


Too Few 17 Year-Olds Demonstrate Strong Reading Skills

Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables


African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13 Year-Olds

Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Tables online.


Increaseing

Student Achievement

Starts With a Plan


Phyllis Hunter’s 9 Step Plan


The Top 9 Big Ideas

For Implementing

RESEARCH BASED

Programs

READING


The 9 Big Ideas

  • Change Focus to specific teaching of Reading in grades 4-12

  • Offer more Reading Curricula/Programs 4-12

  • Increase effort and infrastructure to provide administrative and logistical support at the Elementary and Secondary School level

  • Increase opportunities for content-focused coaching and support for teachers at the classroom level

  • Use more assessment data to show effects of the efforts


Number 1

Change focus from teaching content only. . . to explicit teaching and enhancement of Reading skills and strategies in grades 4-12.

“Every Child a Graduate :

A Framework for an excellent Education for all Middle and High school Students”


Receptive

Requires a reader or listener to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening

Expressive

Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning

VOCABULARY


Phonological Awareness

Poetry - rhymes, alliteration, onomatopoeia, meter

Educational raps

Chants

Choral response

Pronunciation practice

Vocabulary

Parts of speech

Root words

Accelerated Reader

Word walls

Classroom discussion

Fluency

Paired reading

Independent reading

Repeated reading

Media – assisted reading

Repeated reading

Reading aloud

Literature circles

Jigsaw activities

Reader’s theater

DEAR,SSR & discussion

Reading Comprehension

Guided reading

Literature discussion

Strategies, Click and Clunk, SQ3R, KWL

Questioning the author

Intermediate/SecondaryA Comprehensive Reading Program What Does It Look Like in the Classroom?


Phonics

Spelling

Alphabetizing skills

Decoding unfamiliar words

Suffixes, prefixes

Reading Comprehension

Guided reading

Literature discussion

Strategies, Click and Clunk, SQ3R, KWL

Questioning the author

Motivation

Book Clubs

Incentive programs

Author study and visits

Reading Counts, Accelerated Reader

25 book challenge

Interest survey

Intermediate/SecondaryA Comprehensive Reading Program What Does It Look Like in the Classroom?


HOW WILL I KNOW A GOOD EARLY READING PROGRAM WHEN I SEE ONE?


It will receive a “15” on the following rating score (one point for each ‘yes’)


1. Every teacher shows enthusiasm for reading and for reading practice by providing interesting and relevant instruction and practice that shows the value and fun of reading well.


2. The reading knowledge of all kindergarten students is assessed with a screening test to be administered no later than mid-year.


3. Reading instruction and practice lasts ninety minutes or more every day in first, second, and third grade, and sixty minutes or more in kindergarten.


4. All students in first, second, and third grades who are behind in reading receive structured instruction and practice for at least sixty minutes within each school day, in addition to the ninety minutes a day provided for regular reading instruction.


5. Additionally, before or after school sessions are provided for all second and third grade students who need more help. Basic reading instruction and practice is repeated, as necessary. Summer school instruction is also available for students who are behind at the year’s end.


6. Reading instruction and practice includes the following elements:

  • .dividing spoken words into individual sounds;

  • .blending individual sounds into spoken words;

  • .learning names and sounds of letters;

  • .reading new words (decoding) by blending letter sound together; and

  • .practice with words, sentences, and stories that are selected to represent ongoing sound and letter instruction.


7. Vocabulary building is included in instruction at each grade level. First, second, and third grade reading instruction includes daily spelling practice and spelling tests (at least weekly).


8. The connection between reading and writing is emphasized on a daily basis. Writing activities are completed regularly and are corrected and returned to the students. By the end of second grade, students resubmit corrected papers. Corrected papers are sent home on a regular basis.


9. All students are read to each day from outstanding fiction and non-fiction books, and discuss these books with each other and their teachers.


10. All students have a chance to read both silently and aloud in school each day and at home each evening.


11. Every classroom has a library of books with a range of difficulty from books students can read easily to those that are challenging.


12. The school library has many books that children want to read. Students have access to the school library during summer vacations.


13. Students maintain a record of books they read in class and at home. School-wide rewards and special recognition are given to students to read a lot of books.


14. Weekly reading achievement records for each student are maintained in each classroom and summarized and sent home every three weeks.


15. At the end of each school year, a standardized measurement of reading achievement of every student (K through 3) is completed, results are sent home to parents with a report of the student’s grade level achievement. When required, a remediation plan is attached.


Total 15 is Awesome !


Strategies

Pick 2

Vocabulary Fluency


Enunciate

  • What does it mean?  1 : announce, proclaim  2 : to pronounce clearly : articulateHow do you use it?  After my sister had her wisdom teeth removed, she had a hard time enunciating words until the anesthesia wore off.Are you a word wiz?  "Enunciate" "to report." Which words below also share this Latin root?  A. "proclaim" and "acclaim"  B. "officiate" and "retaliate"  C. "articulate" and "recapitulate"  D. "pronounce" and "renounce"Answer:  "Enunciate," "pronounce," and "renounce" all trace back to "nuntiare," meaning "to report." The Latin prefix "pro-" ("forth") plus "nuntiare" produce "pronounce," meaning "to declare officially." The Latin prefix "re-" ("back") combined with "nuntiare" gives us "renounce," meaning "to give up by public declaration." Our Buzzword, "enunciate," comes from the Latin prefix "e-" ("out") and "nuntiare." Why no family resemblance? Because "pronounce" and "renounce" came into English via French, while "enunciate" came into English


Number TWO

Offer more Reading Curricula/Programs 4-12

Teach strategies as well as skills.

Curriculum That Works !


Increase the infrastructure and effort to provide administrative and logistical support at the Secondary School level

#3


  • Increase opportunities for content-focused coaching and support for teachers at the classroom level

Number


Diagnostic Review

Current level of functioning

Progress monitoring

Number

Use more assessment data to show effects of the efforts implemented

Fluency probe

SRI (Scholastic Reading Inventory),

CBM (curriculum based assessment)

CORE Phonics Survey


Big Ideas To Implement

  • Specific Reading support for (some / not all) ELL, Black, Hispanic, Native American and poor students.

  • Coordinate resources to fund program purchase, coaching , site visits, substitutes , assessments.

  • Extend the school day and school year learning opportunities

  • Enlist students in the pursuit of Reading as their New Civil Right


Number

Specific Reading support for (some / not all)

ELL, Black, Hispanic, Native American and poor students

Modeling, Criteria charts, Disciplinary literacy, Graphic Organizers


Dr. Ron Edmonds’ Quote

"We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children whose schooling is of interest to us. We already know more than we need in order to do this. Whether we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven't so far."

1980


Coordinate resources to fund program purchase, coaching ,

site visits, substitutes , assessments

Number


Number

Extend the School day

and the school year to offer engaging opportunities for intervention


The Full Year Calendar


Less Summer Vacation


Less Weekends & Holidays


Less Professional Development Days & Early Dismissal/Parent Conferences


Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, Awards, Assembles, & Concerts


Less State and District Testing


Bottom Line:

Roughly 13-15 Eight-Hour Days Per Subject Per Year


Number

Enlist students in the pursuit of Reading as their New Civil Right !


Professional Resources

Web-sites


Reading Rockets WETA/Channel 262775 S. Quincy StreetArlington, VA 22206Fax: [email protected]


Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement University of Michigan School of EducationRm. 2002 SEB610 E. University Ave.Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1259Phone: (734) 647-6940

Fax: (734) 615-4858

[email protected]


CPRE The Consortium for Policy Research in Education

www.cpre.org(215) 573-0700


The Education Trust

For More Information . . .

www.edtrust.org


Alliance for Excellent Education

www.all4ed.org


Phyllis C.Hunter

[email protected]


Contact Information

E-mail address

[email protected]


SOMEBODY HAS TO

Somebody has to go polish the stars,

They’re looking a little bit dull.

Somebody has to go polish the stars,

For the eagles and starlings and gulls

Have all been complaining they’re tarnished and worn,

They say they want new ones we cannot afford.

So please get your rags

And your polishing jars,

Somebody has to go polish the stars.


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