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Input Stages. Input Stages - Introduction. Most CMOS inputs have rise/fall time limits Most inputs (FPGAs) also have some hysteresis Typical symbols in specifications t R , t TLH - rise time t F , t THL - fall time t T - transition time Waveform measurement

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input stages introduction
Input Stages - Introduction
  • Most CMOS inputs have rise/fall time limits
    • Most inputs (FPGAs) also have some hysteresis
  • Typical symbols in specifications

tR, tTLH - rise time

tF, tTHL - fall time

tT - transition time

  • Waveform measurement
    • typically from 10% to 90% but not always
    • sometime parameter measurement method is not specified
input stages practice
Input Stages - Practice
  • Data sheets may list a parameter for information only and not 100% tested
  • Laboratory devices have shown that not all qualified devices will meet the data sheet
    • One case was when a part was “shrunk”
    • Migration to a faster process
    • Oscillations observed
  • Conservative margins recommended
input stages termination
Input Stages - Termination
  • Floating CMOS inputs are, in general, \'bad.\'
    • Totem-pole currents, oscillations, etc.
  • Some devices offer pull-up/down resistors
    • SX-S only active during power transitions
    • Xilinx resistors controlled by SRAM
    • Care on internal tri-state lines
  • Dedicated Inputs
    • Actel unused inputs were handled by s/w
    • Not true for some SX, SX-S clocks

 Check each case carefully

input transition times references
Input Transition TimesReferences
  • [1] ACT ™ 1 Field Programmable Gate Arrays, March 1991.
  • [2] ACT 1 and ACT 2 Military FPGAs, April, 1992.
  • [3] ACT ™ 1 Series FPGAs, April 1996.
  • [4] Radiation‑Hardened FPGAs, v3.0, January 2000.
  • [5] ACT ™ 2 Series FPGAs, April 1996.
  • [6] Accelerator Series FPGAs – ACT ™ 3 Family, September, 1997.
  • [7] 54SX Family FPGAs RadTolerant and HiRel, Preliminary V1.5, March 2000.
  • [8] HiRel SX-A Family FPGAs, Advanced v.1, April 2000.
  • [9] RT54SX-S RadTolerant FPGAs for Space Applications, Advanced 0.2, November, 2000.
  • [10] QPRO XQR4000XL Radiation Hardened FPGAs, DS071 (v1.1) June 25, 2000.
  • [11] QPRO™ Virtex™ 2.5V Radiation Hardened FPGAs, DS028 (v1.0) April 25, 2000 Advance Product Specification.
  • [12] Not in data sheet.
  • [13] Configurable Logic Data Book, Atmel, August 1995.
  • [14] AT6000LV, Atmel, October 1999.
transition time requirements implications pullup resistors
Transition Time RequirementsImplications - Pullup Resistors
  • Often used for tri-state or bi-directional busses
  • Rise time (10% - 90%) =  = 2.2 RC
  • Example

C = 50 pF

R = 10 k (keep power levels reasonable)

 = 500 ns

 violates many devices\' specifications (see table)

transition time requirements implications filters and protection circuits
Transition Time RequirementsImplications - Filters and Protection Circuits
  • Often used on signals
    • Elimination of noise
    • ESD protection
    • Etc.
  • RC filters or clamps (high C) can often substantially degrade transition times
  • Consider discrete hysteresis buffers, particularly for clock signals
transition time requirements implications interfacing with older logic families
Transition Time RequirementsImplications - Interfacing with older logic families
  • Case Study (1)
    • CD4000B CMOS NOR gate
    • VDD = 5V
    • tT (typ) = 100 ns
  • Case Study (2)
    • CD4050B (used as a level shifter, for example)
    • VDD = 5V
    • tT (max, 25 C) = 160 ns
transition time requirements implications interfacing with older logic families cont d
Transition Time RequirementsImplications - Interfacing with older logic families (cont\'d)
  • Case Study (3) - 54HC00 CMOS NOR gate
    • 5962-8403701VDA, NAND GATE, QUAD 2-INPUT

Test Symbol Test conditions 1/ Limits Unit

-55°C TC+125°C Min Max

unless otherwise specified

Transition time, tTHL, TC = +25C VCC=2.0 75

output rise and tTLH CL = 50 pF VCC=4.5 15 ns

fall 3/ See figure 4 VCC=6.0 13

TC = -55C, -55C VCC=2.0 110

CL = 50 pF VCC=4.5 22 ns

See figure 4 VCC=6.0 19

3/ Transition time (tTLH, tTHL), if not tested, shall be guaranteed to the specified limits in table 1.

transition time requirements parameter measurement
Transition Time RequirementsParameter Measurement

From: Figure 4,5962-8403701VDA, NAND GATE, QUAD 2-INPUT

transition time requirements case study rh1020
Transition Time RequirementsCase Study: RH1020
  • Production Parts
    • Input stage was modified for clock upset
  • VCC = +5VDC
  • T=25°C
  • CLKBUF monitored on output
    • Because of design of the buffer, difficult to see effects on the input pin
  • Used a low-impedance signal generator, triangle waveform
  • Commercial specification is tR, tF of 500 ns
    • RH1020 did not meet this specification
    • SMD 5962-90965 does not specify this parameter
transition time requirements case study rh1020 clkbuf notes
Transition Time RequirementsCase Study: RH1020 CLKBUF Notes
  • Conditions: Room temp; VCC = 5.0 V.
  • Oscillations detected consistently at tR = 360 ns
  • Sporadic output pulses at tR = 300 ns
  • Transition time requirement not symmetric
    • Oscillations detected consistently at tF = 1.5 s
    • Sporadic output pulses observed at tF = 1.0 s
interfacing voltage margin
Interfacing - Voltage Margin
  • TTL  CMOS
    • Problem with discrete circuits (still seen)
    • Normally not a problem with 5V FPGAs
    • Issue with new FPGAs
      • 0.35 m may only pull up to 3.3 VDC
      • 0.25 m may only pull up to 2.5 VDC
      • Can be issue with parts having a VIH = 70% VDD
      • Ringing can cause false triggering
  • VIL = 0.8V and fast devices are sensitive to ringing on a back plane.
inputs rt54sx16 t t
Inputs: RT54SX16 tT

RT54SX16 output (bottom trace) with a slow rising input (top trace) which clocks a divide by two counter resulting in a "glitch." The clock input was provided by an HP8110A pulse generator.

inputs rt54sx16 t t1
Inputs: RT54SX16 tT

RT54SX16 output (bottom trace) with a slow rising input (top trace) which clocks a divide by two counter resulting in a "glitch." The clock input was provided by an HP8110A pulse generator.

jtag and loss of control
JTAG and Loss of Control
  • Run TCK with TMS=‘1’
    • Guaranteed to return to TEST_LOGIC_RESET state within 5 clocks.
  • Share system clock with TCK
  • JTAG Hit
  • Inputs turn to outputs
    • Clock pin turns to output, clamps system clock

 No TCK, system hangs.

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