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Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics. Types of Statistical Analysis. Descriptive Inferential: Test of Differences Test of Associative Predictive. Pre Descriptive Statistics. Data entry - Data coding (data code book). Data matrix

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Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

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Basic data analysis descriptive statistics l.jpg

Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics


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Types of Statistical Analysis

  • Descriptive

  • Inferential:

    • Test of Differences

    • Test of Associative

    • Predictive


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Pre Descriptive Statistics

  • Data entry - Data coding (data code book).

  • Data matrix

  • Descriptive statistics - “describe” the data, portray an average respondent (data reduction):

    • Summarizes

    • Conceptualizes

    • Communication

    • Interpolation/extrapolation


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Descriptive Statistics

  • Statistical concepts:

    • Measures of Central Tendency

    • Measures of Variability

    • Other Descriptive Measures


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Measures of Central Tendency

  • Applies to any measure that reflects a typical or frequent response

  • Mode: the number that appears most often

  • Median: the value whose occurrence lie in the middle of a set of numbers (half above and half below)

  • Mean: arithmetic average of a set of numbers


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Measures of Central Tendency

  • Mean: arithmetic average of a set of numbers

    X=sample mean

    m = Population mean


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Measures of Variability

  • Reveal the typical differences between values in a data set

  • Frequency Distribution: tabulation of the number of times that each different value appears in a data set, shown as a percentage

  • Range: difference between the lowest and highest value in a data set


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Measures of Variability

  • Standard Deviation: indicates the degree of variation or diversity in the values in such as way as to be translatable into a normal curve distribution

  • With a normal curve, the midpoint (apex) of the curve is also the mean and exactly 50% of the distribution lies on either side of the mean.


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Normal, bell-shaped curve

50%

50%

Midpoint

(mean)


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Normal Curve and Standard Deviation


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Other Descriptive Measures

  • Measures of skewness

    • Is the curve really bell-shaped or does it “skew” to one side or the other?

    • The closer the number given for skewness is to zero, the closer the distribution is to being bell-shaped.

    • A positive skewness means that the distribution has a tail to the right while a negative skewness means it has a tail to the left


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Other Descriptive Measures

  • Kurtosis indicates how pointed or peaked the distribution.

  • A kurtosis value of zero or close to zero indicates that the distribution is bell-shaped.


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When to use what


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Microsoft Excel

  • Menu: Tools, Data Analysis, Descriptive Statistics

  • If Data Analysis is not present under Tools Bar then

    • go to Tools, Add-ins

    • check Analysis Toolpak and Analysis Toolpak VBA

    • click OK

    • Data analysis should appear under Tools now


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