“Early Homo”
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“Early Homo” -- The First Humans. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed ., p. 215. Neandertals and Other Archaics. “Early” Homo and “Archaic” Homo ?. What’s the difference between. Neandertals and Other Archaics. “Early” Homo = Homo habilis 2.4 mya.

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Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed ., p. 215

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Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

“Early Homo”

-- The First Humans

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 215


Neandertals and other archaics

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

and

“Archaic” Homo?

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics1

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

=

Homo habilis

2.4 mya

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics2

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo

=

Neandertals and others

ca. 300,000 ybp

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics3

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo

=

“Premodern Human”

ca. 300,000 ybp

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics4

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

=

Homo habilis

2.4 mya

What’s the difference between


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Source: Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 33


Early homo

“Early Homo”

Homo rudolfensis . . .

(e.g., KNM ER 1470)

2.Homo habilis . . .

Some people think there are two species:


Early homo1

Early Homo

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology,

8th ed., p. 252 (cf., pp. 215-217, 9th ed.:

“We agree that more than one species is probably represented, but for simplicity suggest referring to all the [Plio-pleistocene human] specimens as ‘early Homo.’”

“The species names Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis are the ones most commonly used for designating two different species of early Homo.”


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 215


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., Fig. 10-30


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., Fig. 10-31


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., Fig. 10-29


Early homo2

Early Homo

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology,

8th ed., p. 252 (cf., pp. 215-217, 9th ed.:

“We agree that more than one species is probably represented, but for simplicity suggest referring to all the [Plio-pleistocene human] specimens as ‘early Homo.’”

“The species names Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis are the ones most commonly used for designating two different species of early Homo.”


Australopithecines homo

Genus

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

habilis ( “early” )

rudolfensis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo


Traits

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”


Traits1

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .


Traits2

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .


Traits3

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Cranial Capacity

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 234


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 269


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Smithsonian Institution


Traits4

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Glossary

Glossary

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =


Glossary1

Glossary

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =

(e.g., KNM ER 1470)


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Major species

Major Species

one of two species of “Early Homo”

inhabited South and East Africa

2.4 – 1.6 mya

Homo rudolfensis –(KNM ER 1470)


Glossary2

Glossary

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =


Major species1

Major Species

one of two species of “Early Homo”

inhabited South and East Africa

2.0 – 1.6 mya

Homo habilis –(Olduvai, Koobi Fora . . .)


Selected major discoveries events ca 1850 present

Selected Major Discoveries / Events, ca. 1850 - Present

Homo habilis –(Olduvai, Koobi Fora . . .)

  • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

  • 700 cc brain

  • tool manufacture

  • 1.85 - 1.6 mya


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed. p 185


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Traits5

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 103


Epochs tertiary quaternary

Epochs: Tertiary / Quaternary


Traits6

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

www.amnh.org/exhibitions/atapuerca/africa/branches.php


Traits7

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Major trends brain development

Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

  • complexity . . .

Brains develop in


Major trends brain development1

Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

Brains develop in


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Source: Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 230


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 269


Major trends brain development2

Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

Brains develop in


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Source: Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 386


Major trends brain development3

Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

  • complexity . . .

Brains develop in


Major trends brain development4

Major Trends: Brain Development

  • increases in area

the cerebral cortex(neocortex)


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 8th ed., Fig. 7-3


Early humans

“Early Humans”

Interpretations


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Smithsonian Institution


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., Fig. 10-31


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Humankind Emerging, 7th edition, p. 259


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Early homo3

“Early Homo”

Interpretations

__________________

And, usually, early Homo are men, heading East . . .


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Source: Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 33


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7132794.stm


Early homo4

“Early Homo”

Next:

Homo erectus . . .


Australopithecines homo1

Genus

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

rudolfensis ( “early” )

habilis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Early homo5

“Early Homo”

And after Homo erectus:

Homo sapiens . . .


Australopithecines homo2

Genus

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

rudolfensis ( “early” )

habilis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Early homo6

“Early Homo”

Caution!

Note that . . .


Neandertals and other archaics5

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo sapiens

“Early” Homo

is not the same as


Neandertals and other archaics6

Neandertals and Other Archaics

  • Homo habilis

  • Homo rudolfensis

“Early” Homo


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Neandertals and other archaics7

Neandertals and Other Archaics

  • are members of the species Homo sapiens (including Neandertals)

  • preceded “anatomically modern Homo sapiens” (Qafzeh and Cro-Magnon)

  • are different from Homo erectus . . .

  • but lack the full set of characteristics diagnostic of modern Homo sapiens . . .

“Archaic” Homo sapiens


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Time 23 July 2001


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 268


Neandertals and other archaics8

Neandertals and Other Archaics

  • post - Erectus humans in

    • Africa

    • Asia (India and China)

    • Europe

“Archaic” Homo sapiens


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 253


Neandertals and other archaics9

Neandertals and Other Archaics

  • 400,000 - ca. 130,000 y.b.p.

“Archaic” Homo sapiens


Neandertals and other archaics10

Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo sapiens include

  • Swanscombe

  • Steinheim

  • Fontechevade

  • Atapuerca

  • Arago

  • Vértesszöllös

  • Broken Hill (Kabwe)

  • and others

  • Neandertal, BUT . . .


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 252


Neandertals and other archaics11

Neandertals and Other Archaics

Neandertals are a special case of “Archaic” Homo sapiens

More on that latter


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

Homo erectus . . ..

Next:


Understanding physical anthropology and archaeology 9th ed p 215

The End


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