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“Early Homo” -- The First Humans. Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed ., p. 215. Neandertals and Other Archaics. “Early” Homo and “Archaic” Homo ?. What’s the difference between. Neandertals and Other Archaics. “Early” Homo = Homo habilis 2.4 mya.

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“Early Homo”

-- The First Humans

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 215


Neandertals and other archaics
Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

and

“Archaic” Homo?

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics1
Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

=

Homo habilis

2.4 mya

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics2
Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo

=

Neandertals and others

ca. 300,000 ybp

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics3
Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Archaic” Homo

=

“Premodern Human”

ca. 300,000 ybp

What’s the difference between


Neandertals and other archaics4
Neandertals and Other Archaics

“Early” Homo

=

Homo habilis

2.4 mya

What’s the difference between



Early homo

“Early Homo”

Homo rudolfensis . . .

(e.g., KNM ER 1470)

2. Homo habilis . . .

Some people think there are two species:


Early homo1

Early Homo

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology,

8th ed., p. 252 (cf., pp. 215-217, 9th ed.:

“We agree that more than one species is probably represented, but for simplicity suggest referring to all the [Plio-pleistocene human] specimens as ‘early Homo.’”

“The species names Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis are the ones most commonly used for designating two different species of early Homo.”







Early homo2

Early ed., Homo

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology,

8th ed., p. 252 (cf., pp. 215-217, 9th ed.:

“We agree that more than one species is probably represented, but for simplicity suggest referring to all the [Plio-pleistocene human] specimens as ‘early Homo.’”

“The species names Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis are the ones most commonly used for designating two different species of early Homo.”


Australopithecines homo

Genus ed.,

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

habilis ( “early” )

rudolfensis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo


Traits

Traits ed.,

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”


Traits1

Traits ed.,

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .


Traits2

Traits ed.,

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .


Traits3

Traits ed.,

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Cranial Capacity ed.,

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 234



Time ed.,23 July 2001


Time ed.,23 July 2001



Traits4

Traits ed.,

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Glossary

Glossary ed.,

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =


Glossary1

Glossary ed.,

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =

(e.g., KNM ER 1470)


Time ed.,23 July 2001


Major species

Major Species ed.,

one of two species of “Early Homo”

inhabited South and East Africa

2.4 – 1.6 mya

Homo rudolfensis –(KNM ER 1470)


Glossary2

Glossary ed.,

Homo rudolfensis . . .

Homo habilis . . .

“Early Homo” =


Major species1

Major Species ed.,

one of two species of “Early Homo”

inhabited South and East Africa

2.0 – 1.6 mya

Homo habilis –(Olduvai, Koobi Fora . . .)


Selected major discoveries events ca 1850 present
Selected Major Discoveries / Events, ca. 1850 - Present ed.,

Homo habilis –(Olduvai, Koobi Fora . . .)

  • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

  • 700 cc brain

  • tool manufacture

  • 1.85 - 1.6 mya



Time 23 July 2001


Traits5

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .



Epochs tertiary quaternary
Epochs: Tertiary / Quaternary


Traits6

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains



Traits7

Traits

1. Are the first humans (Homo) . . .

“Early Homo”

2. Are (sometimes called)

Plio-Pleistocene hominids . . .

3. Are the earliest lithic tool makers . . .

4. Had big brains


Major trends brain development
Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

  • complexity . . .

Brains develop in


Major trends brain development1
Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

Brains develop in




Major trends brain development2
Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

Brains develop in



Major trends brain development3
Major Trends: Brain Development

  • size . . .

  • the ratio of brain weight to overall body weight . . .

  • complexity . . .

Brains develop in


Major trends brain development4
Major Trends: Brain Development

  • increases in area

the cerebral cortex(neocortex)



Early humans

“Early Humans”

Interpretations


Time 23 July 2001




Humankind Emerging ed.,, 7th edition, p. 259



Time ed.,23 July 2001



Early homo3

“Early ed.,Homo”

Interpretations

__________________

And, usually, early Homo are men, heading East . . .


Time ed.,23 July 2001




Early homo4

“Early ed.,Homo”

Next:

Homo erectus . . .


Australopithecines homo1

Genus ed.,

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

rudolfensis ( “early” )

habilis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo



Early homo5

“Early ed.,Homo”

And after Homo erectus:

Homo sapiens . . .


Australopithecines homo2

Genus ed.,

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

Homo

Species

ramidus

afarensis

africanus

aethiopicus

boisei

robustus

rudolfensis ( “early” )

habilis ( “early” )

erectus

sapiens

Australopithecines - Homo



Early homo6

“Early ed.,Homo”

Caution!

Note that . . .


Neandertals and other archaics5
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

“Archaic” Homo sapiens

“Early” Homo

is not the same as


Neandertals and other archaics6
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

  • Homo habilis

  • Homo rudolfensis

“Early” Homo


Time ed.,23 July 2001


Neandertals and other archaics7
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

  • are members of the species Homo sapiens (including Neandertals)

  • preceded “anatomically modern Homo sapiens” (Qafzeh and Cro-Magnon)

  • are different from Homo erectus . . .

  • but lack the full set of characteristics diagnostic of modern Homo sapiens . . .

“Archaic” Homo sapiens


Time ed.,23 July 2001



Neandertals and other archaics8
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

  • post - Erectus humans in

    • Africa

    • Asia (India and China)

    • Europe

“Archaic” Homo sapiens



Neandertals and other archaics9
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

  • 400,000 - ca. 130,000 y.b.p.

“Archaic” Homo sapiens


Neandertals and other archaics10
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

“Archaic” Homo sapiens include

  • Swanscombe

  • Steinheim

  • Fontechevade

  • Atapuerca

  • Arago

  • Vértesszöllös

  • Broken Hill (Kabwe)

  • and others

  • Neandertal, BUT . . .



Neandertals and other archaics11
Neandertals and Other Archaics ed.,

Neandertals are a special case of “Archaic” Homo sapiens

More on that latter


Homo erectus . . . ed.,.

Next:


The End ed.,


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