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DESIGN. PART 2. ALTERNATIVE STUDIES AND PROJECT IMPACTS PLANNING AND MANAGING DESIGN DESIGN DISCIPLINE COORDINATION GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN. ALTERNATIVE STUDIES AND PROJECT IMPACTS. OVERVIEW ALTERNATIVES STUDY AND IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND PERMITTING

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Design l.jpg

DESIGN

PART 2


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  • ALTERNATIVE STUDIES AND PROJECT IMPACTS

  • PLANNING AND MANAGING DESIGN

  • DESIGN DISCIPLINE COORDINATION

  • GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN


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ALTERNATIVE STUDIES AND PROJECT IMPACTS

  • OVERVIEW

  • ALTERNATIVES STUDY AND IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS

  • ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND PERMITTING

  • PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT


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OVERVIEW

  • Major construction projects typically involve the development and study of several alternatives.

  • The evaluation of alternatives requires cooperative efforts of owner, designer, contractor (if applicable), regulatory agencies, and often the public.

  • Whatever a project’s size or complexity, the project team can improve overall quality by following a systematic process to identify, screen, refine, and select alternatives.

  • Such an approach is virtually a necessity on projects that are subject to federal, state, or local laws that require extensive project impact analysis, documentation, and reporting.


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Alternatives Study and Impact Analysis Process

  • STEP 1

  • Project Conceptualization

  • Define project

  • Define owner’s goals and objectives

  • Define expectations of other stakeholders

  • Define constraints

  • STEP 2

  • Existing Conditions and Future Need Analysis

  • Identity indicators

  • Define existing conditions

  • Identify future needs

  • Consider “no-build”

  • Analyze future needs

  • STEP 3

  • Framework for Developing Conceptual Alternatives

  • Address deficiencies

  • Respond to goals and objectives

  • Acknowledge constraints

  • Address pre-established arrangements

  • STEP 4

  • Investigating and Selecting Conceptual Alternatives

  • Fatal Flaw Screening

  • Qualitative Assessment and Comparison of Conceptual Alternatives

  • Quantitative Comparison of Conceptual Alternatives

  • Selection of Preferred Conceptual Alternatives


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Investigation and Selection of Conceptual Alternatives


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Ordinal Ranking Example


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ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND PERMITTING

  • When developing alternatives, the project team needs to address a wide range of environmental considerations including impacts on:

    • Wetlands and water quality

    • Aquatic and wildlife resources, navigable waterways

    • Natural vegetation including forests

    • Human health

    • Cultural resources, including historic and archaeological features

    • Topographic features

    • Traffic congestion

    • Air quality

    • Noise and vibration

    • Waste Management


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ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND PERMITTING (cont.)

  • Regulatory agencies consider socioeconomic conditions part of the environment. Therefore, the project team evaluates impacts on the fabric of community such as:

    • Residential or business displacements;

    • Effects on property values and/or business vitality;

    • Quality of life during/after construction in nearby neighborhoods;

    • The potential for disproportionate negative impacts on low-income or ethnic communities;

    • Sustainable development concerns

  • Regulatory agencies often require the project team to provide documentation and obtain permits that are specifically related to project’s impact on the surrounding environment.


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PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

  • The coordination of public involvement with the alternative study process is an essential component of construction projects.

  • Public involvement may range from informal one-on-one meetings with people affected by construction, to extensive programs that involve workshops, open houses, public hearing, and media relations.

  • During planning, public involvement efforts tend to focus on building a consensus and obtaining necessary approval to begin design and construction.

  • Later, when construction actually begins, public concerns tend to turn toward traffic and environmental impacts in the immediate area of project.


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PLANNING AND MANAGING DESIGN

  • ORGANIZING FOR DESIGN

  • THE DESIGN TEAM

  • PROJECT DESIGN GUIDELINES

  • COORDINATION AND COMMUNICATION DURING DESIGN

  • MONITORING AND CONTROLLING DESIGN COST AND SCHEDULE


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ORGANIZING FOR DESIGN

  • After developing a clear understanding of the owner’s goals and objectives, the designer prepares the design activity plan.

  • This plan (flowchart or arrow diagram) identifies the activities required to deliver contract documents to the owner. It also identifies relationships among activities and estimates the duration of each activity and associated staffing and labor.

  • With an activity plan, milestones can be set and related design costs defined.


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Typical Phases of Design

  • Initiating design (Start-Up)

  • Producing Design Documents

  • Quality Assurance / Quality Control (QA/QC)

  • Design Close-Out


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Initiating Design (Start-Up)

  • Design efforts begin with a design team meeting during which the design team leader reviews owner’s goals and objectives for the project with other design team members.

  • The design team then develops plans for achieving the goals and objectives within the established schedules and budgets.

  • Upon securing the commitment of the design team, the design team leader meets with the owner to review the design schedule. If the owner requests a revision in the design schedule or deliverables, the design team reviews these changes for possible conflicts before starting design activities.


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Producing Design Documents

  • The design team leader develops a design activity plan, which serves as the road map for successful design completion and discusses the plan with other team members for changes.

  • The design team also develops recovery measures to keep the design effort on schedule and within budget. (e.g. staffing adjustments, overtime, use of associate consultants, and/or modifications to the original schedule and budget)


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Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA / QC)

  • The design team can help assure project quality through several activities including:

    • Developing a scope of services that meets the owner’s requirements and the project goals and objectives

    • Developing a design activity plan for the project

    • Defining project design guidelines

    • Estimating accurately the hours of effort and costs involved to achieve a quality design

    • Building flexibility into the design activity plan to allow for changes and future project development

    • Developing a realistic schedule with milestones

    • Monitoring design process constantly


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Design Close-Out

Design close-out activities generally follow the steps below:

  • Design team members and associate consultants organize and submit their work to the team leader.

  • The design team leader reviews the submittals for completeness.

  • The design team leader conducts a post-design and post-construction interview with the owner and contractor, and completes the design portions of the project close-out checklists.

  • The design team leader ensures that design submittals are archived in accordance with the project design plan.


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THE DESIGN TEAM

  • The design team leader is the key contact person for the design team and is responsible for accurately understanding the goals and objectives, relaying them to design team members, and making sure that they are addressed and/or incorporated in the design.

  • Design team staff members are responsible for understanding and carrying out the necessary design tasks. The staff usually includes highly experienced engineers, drafters, architects, structural specialists, administrative support personnel.

  • The design team may include associate consultants to assist in developing the scope of design services.

  • Quality assurance reviewer is responsible for monitoring the quality control activities.


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PROJECT DESIGN GUIDELINES

  • In some cases, the owner may only have a general idea of what the constructed facility should look like or how it should operate.

  • The design team develops a set of design guidelines to refine the project goals. i.e. studies to evaluate alternative concepts.

  • The design team review the alternatives with the owner to reach agreement on the design approach that meets the owner’s goals and objects within the project budget.

  • Based on this agreement (in writing), the design team develops specific project design guidelines.


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COORDINATION AND COMMUNICATION DURING DESIGN

  • The design team leader is responsible for keeping the owner and other team members up to date on the status of design progress. (i.e. monthly reports)

  • Design progress reports describe the meetings held and work accomplished during the reporting period and the activities scheduled for the upcoming reporting period.

  • Regular meetings offer team members from different disciplines the opportunity to familiarize themselves with overlapping aspects of the design process.


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MONITORING AND CONTROLLING DESIGN COST AND SCHEDULE

  • The design team leader regularly monitors reports that reflect budgeted and actual expenditures.

  • The information in these reports allows the design team leader to evaluate design process to date and identify potential problems.

  • A design activity plan typically includes milestone and submittal dates for the design progress reports.

  • Interim submittals offer the owner the opportunity to review design activities at a point in the design process when budgets and schedules can more easily accommodate change.


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DESIGN DISCIPLINE COORDINATION

  • LEVELS OF DESIGN DISCIPLINE ORGANIZATION

  • DESIGN DISCIPLINES AND PROJECT OBJECTIVES

  • GENERAL DESIGN TEAM COORDINATION CONSIDERATIONS

  • ROLE OF THE DISCIPLINE LEADER DURING DESIGN

  • ROLE OF THE DESIGNER DURING CONSTRUCTION


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LEVELS OF DESIGN DISCIPLINE ORGANIZATION

There are typically three levels of design organization on multidisciplinary projects:

  • Design Team Leader

  • Principal Discipline Practitioners

  • Support Discipline Practitioner


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LEVELS OF DESIGN DISCIPLINE ORGANIZATION (cont.)

  • The design team leader directs practitioners from each principal design discipline who integrate their technical knowledge with that of support disciplines toward satisfying the project objectives.

  • Principal discipline practitioners typically supply the technical expertise and carry out the design effort in a principal area of design (e.g. architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical engineering design).

  • Support discipline practitioners support the services of principal discipline practitioners by measuring and testing the physical characteristics of the project site and construction materials. (e.g. geotechnical investigation and analysis, material testing, surveys, and hydrological analysis)


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DESIGN DISCIPLINES AND PROJECT OBJECTIVES

  • The requirements and responsibilities of the team members from each design discipline involved depend on the type of project proposed, the project objectives, and the associated contracted relationships.

  • Typically there are three types of project organizational concepts and contractual relationships:

    • Engineering design projects

    • Architectural design projects

    • Design-build projects


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Multidiscipline Project Organization for Engineering Design Project


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Multidiscipline Project Organization for Architectural Design Project


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Design-Build Project Organization


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GENERAL DESIGN TEAM COORDINATION CONSIDERATIONS

  • The project’s functional objectives, budget, schedule, and other characteristics determine the design team’s objectives. The team usually prepares a project plan describing these considerations, as well as constraints on design and construction, and associated design codes and technical criteria.

  • Design coordination at the principal design discipline level involves negotiating compromises. (e.g. initial capital cost vs. long term operating efficiencies)


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GENERAL DESIGN TEAM COORDINATION CONSIDERATIONS (cont.)

  • The extent to which design compromises are made to accommodate the needs of a particular discipline is directly related to the project objectives – except when safety is concerned. Safety is a primary requirement for team members of every discipline.

  • Design considerations on which compromises may be more easily negotiated include aesthetics and the ability to be upgraded in the future.


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ROLE OF THE PROFESSIONAL DISCIPLINE LEADER DURING DESIGN

  • Discipline leaders manage and oversee design tasks within their respective and support disciplines.

  • Discipline leaders are responsible for on-going dialog with the design team leader and owner, making technical decisions, assembling qualified staff to meet technical and schedule objectives, managing discipline team, and coordinating with team members from other disciplines.


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ROLE OF THE DESIGNER DURING CONSTRUCTION

  • The designer’s construction-phase services can contribute significantly to project quality, because of the design team’s close familiarity with the intent of the design with respect to the requirements of each discipline and the overall project objectives.

  • During construction, discipline leaders are typically responsible for additional activities such as:

    • Monitor and control budget

    • Review submittals

    • Become familiar with the construction site

    • Evaluate alternative materials and designs

    • Participate in start-up, testing, final review, and reporting


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GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN

  • OFFICE OPERATION

  • DESIGN PROCEDURES

  • DESIGN ACTIVITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

  • COMPLIANCE WITH CODES AND STANDARDS

  • REGULATORY PERMITS AND APPROVALS

  • PUBLIC FUNDING


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OFFICE OPERATION

  • Qualified personnel and team chemistry are key components of a successful design office.

  • The quality of design activities is directly related to the experience of every member of the design team, as well as the ability of team members to communicate and support common objectives.

  • Staff participation in continuing education programs and professional groups is valuable for helping staff up to date on current practices.

  • In some cases, the use of outside consultants can be of value, as it may not be possible to maintain a staff with experience in all the needed areas.


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OFFICE OPERATION (cont.)

  • Design office management activities include hiring and retaining of appropriately qualified staff, procuring design contracts, sound financial and accounting procedures, establishing and communicating goals and objectives, as well as implementing standard operating procedures.

  • Consistent personnel policies and procedures promote effective and efficient functioning. Consistency provides a common reference point for different projects that the firm undertakes and helps improve overall quality.

  • A variety of manuals are available to aid in defining consistency in various design activities. (e.g. guide to personnel policies and procedures, job descriptions, style manual, guide to editing, etc.)


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DESIGN PROCEDURES

  • Design procedures include:

    • Evaluation and Computation

    • Drafting (preparation of drawings)

    • File management (effective filing system)

  • In each of these areas, a manual or guideline on design procedures is helpful. They usually address the purpose, process, and measurement of quality.


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DESIGN ACTIVITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Design quality

  • Design considerations

  • Sustainable development

  • Design reviews

  • Construction costs

  • Constructability reviews

  • Peer reviews

  • Alternatives Evaluation and Value Engineering


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Design Quality

  • Design quality is measured by a wide range of criteria. These include adherence to basic engineering principles and professional standards, fulfillment of the owner’s goals and objectives, and conformity with applicable codes and standards.

  • In addition to meeting technical objectives, the designer is more likely to achieve project quality by giving strong consideration to factors that relate to user acceptance (e.g. security, appearance, noise, traffic impacts, surrounding environment).

  • A quality design should also strive to provide project solutions that emphasizes flexibility, adaptability, and expendability in a cost-effective manner.

  • Effective communication with the owner and contractor also plays an important role.


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Design Considerations

Three important considerations influence design quality:

  • Serviceability: refers to factors that affect the usefulness of a project. (e.g. vibration, building sway from wind, sound transmission)

  • Life-cycle costs: consider the design and construction costs, operating and maintaining costs taking into account the time value of money.

  • Construction phasing: The designer may accommodate an owner’s desire to build quickly by adopting a phased (fast-track) approach. Initial savings from this approach may be offset by the larger construction and design contingency allowances necessitated by unanticipated changes due to inflexibility in responding to changing conditions or owner requirements.


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Sustainable Development

  • Definition: Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

  • Sustainable development for the owners, designers and contractors of projects is the incorporation of planning and design elements that take into account the environmental and socio-economic effects of natural resource depletion and effective waste management.

  • The long term impacts of failing to consider sustainability in project development will be a continuation of the trend toward natural resource exhaustion and environmental degradation.


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Construction Costs

  • The designer can provide an opinion of probable construction costs to the owner.

  • Often, the designer’s opinion is based on staff experience with similar projects. Otherwise, the designer may engage experienced professionals to aid in developing construction cost opinions.

  • It may be desirable to review cost estimates with an experienced contractor, allowing enough time to study the plans thoroughly and do a complete inventory of material quantities (take offs).

  • Information on representative unit costs may be obtained from construction cost indices in industry publications, local cost records, information from bids, ASCE publications, etc.


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Constructibility Reviews

  • Project constructibility refers to the evaluation of a wide range of information that directly affects the ability of the contractor to actually complete the project.

  • Constructibility considerations include the adequacy and completeness of information in the plans and specifications, site restrictions, economic considerations, the availability of materials, construction equipment requirements, local work force availability, contract required construction phasing and environmental considerations.


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Constructibility Reviews (cont.)

  • Constructibility issues often involve maintaining existing facility operations and ensuring continuous utility service. (best addressed by a written Maintenance of Plant Operations (MOPO) plan)

  • Periodic constructibility reviews conducted by the designer during design phase may reduce problems during construction and help control costs.


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Peer Reviews

  • Peer reviews are examinations of project procedures by independent experts to enhance overall quality.

  • Project owners may contract and pay for peer reviews in a manner similar to the hiring of other technical consultants.

  • Effective peer reviews require that the project schedule provide sufficient time for the review and implementation of recommendations that are agreed to by the project team.


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Alternative Evaluation and Value Engineering

  • The evaluation of alternative designs and project approaches often helps the team develop economical solutions and improvements.

  • Value Engineering (VE) is a common process for the systematic analysis of alternatives.

  • VE involves analysis of alternative designs by outside experts.

  • VE can also be an enhancement to peer and constructibility reviews, if qualified team members participate.

  • VE reviews are most effective when conducted early in the project.


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COMPLIANCE WITH CODES AND STANDARDS

  • Codes and standards are developed by government agencies, industry associations, local governing bodies and professional societies to assure the safety and health of project workers, users, and the general public.

  • It is important for the designer to identify applicable codes and standards early in the design process to prevent delays and extra costs from the reworking of plans and specifications to meet these requirements.


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REGULATORY PERMITS AND APPROVALS

  • The designer is required to exercise professional care in producing construction documents that comply with the requirements of regulatory agencies that issue approvals and permits.

  • This care minimizes the potential for delay in the regulatory process.


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PUBLIC FUNDING

  • Government grants and loan programs are often part of the funding strategy for public projects.

  • However, funding agency procedures and requirements may significantly increase the time and efforts required of the owner and designer.

  • It is a benefit to project quality when the designer the owner, and prospective funding agencies discuss funding considerations before finalizing the agreement for professional services.


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