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Wealth Redistribution Policies. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences School of Medical Education Strategic Policy Sessions: 05. “It’s Your money, not the government’s” Ronald Reagan.

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Wealth redistribution policies

Wealth Redistribution Policies

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

School of Medical Education

Strategic Policy Sessions: 05



“As long as there existed a business owning, class oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.Karl Marx


What is an ideology
What is an Ideology? oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Generally speaking, it is a value system through which we perceive, explain and accept the world.

  • According to the political theorist Robert Dahl, all individuals are ideologues in the sense that we all map out our own interpretations of what the world is and how it should be.


The major components of ideologies
The Major Components of Ideologies oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • The state of human nature

  • The role of the individual in society

  • The role of the state

  • The sources and limits of political authority

  • The preferred economic and social order


Ideologies the preferred economic and social order
Ideologies: The Preferred Economic and Social Order oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Ideologies have to deal with the fundamental question of who controls the wealth in society. Should wealth be equally shared, or should some individuals be allowed to possess more wealth than others?

  • For communists, private ownership is not allowed. They are committed to providing an equitable distribution of wealth

  • For capitalists, people need to compete with one another in order to have an incentive for material gain. Economic and social inequities are allowed to exist


The economy
“The Economy” oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • How politics and economics interact, and how they balance conflicting values of freedom and equality


Components of political economy
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Markets – interaction between supply and demand that functions to allocate resources

    • Freely allow individuals to buy, sell, and trade what they produce for what they will consume

    • Sets values, or “prices” for these goods and services

    • Markets arise spontaneously, and are difficult for the state to control


Components of political economy1
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Property – ownership of goods and services

    • State can choose to play a role in protecting property rights – the right to sell property freely, or to not have it taken away

      • In LDCs, frequently property exists without a fundamental protection of property rights, due to the state’s inability to monitor instances of fraud


Components of political economy2
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Public Goods – goods provided and/or secured by the state

    • Examples (universal): Roads, lighthouses, the military

    • Examples (in some cases)

      • Health care in Britain, Canada

      • Oil in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia

      • Most businesses in Cuba


Components of political economy3
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Taxation

    • Means to provide for public goods and social expenditures

    • Subject of political battles, determined partially by ideology toward the role of the state


Components of political economy4
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Social Expenditures

    • Commonly called “The Welfare State” – redistribution of wealth through government taxing some, and paying others

    • Typically provided to the elderly, the unemployed, the poor, and the disabled

    • Often a subject of political battle, due to the question of who benefits from expenditures


Components of political economy5
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Money, Inflation, and Unemployment

    • States create and manage the money supply through a central bank

    • Creation of too much money in effort to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment can cause inflation

    • Slowing the growth of money to control inflation can slow economic growth and cause unemployment to rise


Components of political economy6
Components of Political Economy oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Regulation – rules or orders to set the boundaries of given procedures

    • States can ban production or sale of goods, set safety requirements, outlaw monopoly control, etc.

  • Trade – access to goods and services from foreign states

    • States can allow open trade, or restrict it through tariffs, quotas, and other non-tariff barriers


Tax rates as of gdp 2008

Sweden oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.: 54.2 %

Denmark: 48.8 % 

Finland: 46.9 %  

Belgium: 45.6 %

France: 45.3 %  

Austria: 43.7 %  

Italy: 42 %  

Netherlands: 41.4 %

Norway: 40.3 %  

Germany: 37.9 %

United Kingdom: 37.4 %

Russia: 36.9 %

Canada: 35.8 %

Switzerland: 35.7 %

New Zealand: 35.1 %

Australia: 31.5 %

Ireland: 31.1 %  

United States: 29.6 %

Japan: 27.1 %  

China: 17%

Mexico: 9.7%

Iran: 7.3%

Nigeria: 6.1%

Tax Rates as % of GDP (2008)


Gini coefficient for the 6 countries
Gini Coefficient for the 6 Countries oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.

  • Sweden – 23.1

  • Germany – 28.3

  • U.S. – 40.8

  • China – 44.7

  • United Kingdom – 36.0

  • Russia – 31.0

  • Mexico – 54.6

  • Iran – 43.0

  • Nigeria – 50.6


Success is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration

Priori

Experience

=

Posteriori

+

Where I was born

Inspiration

Who am I now

Who are my parents

=

+

Perspiration

What have I now

How I was developed

What is my IQ


Wealth redistribution
Wealth Redistribution perspiration

  • Revenue Model

    • Logarithmic (Regressive)

    • Full Range Increasing (Proportional)

    • Increasing (Proportional) with Threshold

    • Exponential (Progressive)

  • Payback Model

    • Full Range Flat Rate

    • Flat Rate with Threshold

    • Full Range Decreasing

    • Decreasing with Threshold

    • Inverse Exponential


Income Redistributive Policies perspiration

Full-Range

Flat Rate

Flat Rate

with Threshold

Inverse

Exponential

Full-Range

Decreasing

Decreasing

with Threshold

Full Range

Increasing

Increasing

with Threshold

Exponential


Income redistributive policies
Income Redistributive Policies perspiration

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income


Income redistributive policies1
Income Redistributive Policies perspiration

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Thank You ! perspiration

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