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Wealth Redistribution Policies. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences School of Medical Education Strategic Policy Sessions: 05. “It’s Your money, not the government’s” Ronald Reagan.

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wealth redistribution policies

Wealth Redistribution Policies

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

School of Medical Education

Strategic Policy Sessions: 05

slide3
“As long as there existed a business owning, class oppression would continue. Private property is illegal.Karl Marx
what is an ideology
What is an Ideology?
  • Generally speaking, it is a value system through which we perceive, explain and accept the world.
  • According to the political theorist Robert Dahl, all individuals are ideologues in the sense that we all map out our own interpretations of what the world is and how it should be.
the major components of ideologies
The Major Components of Ideologies
  • The state of human nature
  • The role of the individual in society
  • The role of the state
  • The sources and limits of political authority
  • The preferred economic and social order
ideologies the preferred economic and social order
Ideologies: The Preferred Economic and Social Order
  • Ideologies have to deal with the fundamental question of who controls the wealth in society. Should wealth be equally shared, or should some individuals be allowed to possess more wealth than others?
  • For communists, private ownership is not allowed. They are committed to providing an equitable distribution of wealth
  • For capitalists, people need to compete with one another in order to have an incentive for material gain. Economic and social inequities are allowed to exist
the economy
“The Economy”
  • How politics and economics interact, and how they balance conflicting values of freedom and equality
components of political economy
Components of Political Economy
  • Markets – interaction between supply and demand that functions to allocate resources
    • Freely allow individuals to buy, sell, and trade what they produce for what they will consume
    • Sets values, or “prices” for these goods and services
    • Markets arise spontaneously, and are difficult for the state to control
components of political economy1
Components of Political Economy
  • Property – ownership of goods and services
    • State can choose to play a role in protecting property rights – the right to sell property freely, or to not have it taken away
      • In LDCs, frequently property exists without a fundamental protection of property rights, due to the state’s inability to monitor instances of fraud
components of political economy2
Components of Political Economy
  • Public Goods – goods provided and/or secured by the state
    • Examples (universal): Roads, lighthouses, the military
    • Examples (in some cases)
      • Health care in Britain, Canada
      • Oil in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia
      • Most businesses in Cuba
components of political economy3
Components of Political Economy
  • Taxation
    • Means to provide for public goods and social expenditures
    • Subject of political battles, determined partially by ideology toward the role of the state
components of political economy4
Components of Political Economy
  • Social Expenditures
    • Commonly called “The Welfare State” – redistribution of wealth through government taxing some, and paying others
    • Typically provided to the elderly, the unemployed, the poor, and the disabled
    • Often a subject of political battle, due to the question of who benefits from expenditures
components of political economy5
Components of Political Economy
  • Money, Inflation, and Unemployment
    • States create and manage the money supply through a central bank
    • Creation of too much money in effort to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment can cause inflation
    • Slowing the growth of money to control inflation can slow economic growth and cause unemployment to rise
components of political economy6
Components of Political Economy
  • Regulation – rules or orders to set the boundaries of given procedures
    • States can ban production or sale of goods, set safety requirements, outlaw monopoly control, etc.
  • Trade – access to goods and services from foreign states
    • States can allow open trade, or restrict it through tariffs, quotas, and other non-tariff barriers
tax rates as of gdp 2008
Sweden: 54.2 %

Denmark: 48.8 % 

Finland: 46.9 %  

Belgium: 45.6 %

France: 45.3 %  

Austria: 43.7 %  

Italy: 42 %  

Netherlands: 41.4 %

Norway: 40.3 %  

Germany: 37.9 %

United Kingdom: 37.4 %

Russia: 36.9 %

Canada: 35.8 %

Switzerland: 35.7 %

New Zealand: 35.1 %

Australia: 31.5 %

Ireland: 31.1 %  

United States: 29.6 %

Japan: 27.1 %  

China: 17%

Mexico: 9.7%

Iran: 7.3%

Nigeria: 6.1%

Tax Rates as % of GDP (2008)
gini coefficient for the 6 countries
Gini Coefficient for the 6 Countries
  • Sweden – 23.1
  • Germany – 28.3
  • U.S. – 40.8
  • China – 44.7
  • United Kingdom – 36.0
  • Russia – 31.0
  • Mexico – 54.6
  • Iran – 43.0
  • Nigeria – 50.6
slide17

Success is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration

Priori

Experience

=

Posteriori

+

Where I was born

Inspiration

Who am I now

Who are my parents

=

+

Perspiration

What have I now

How I was developed

What is my IQ

wealth redistribution
Wealth Redistribution
  • Revenue Model
    • Logarithmic (Regressive)
    • Full Range Increasing (Proportional)
    • Increasing (Proportional) with Threshold
    • Exponential (Progressive)
  • Payback Model
    • Full Range Flat Rate
    • Flat Rate with Threshold
    • Full Range Decreasing
    • Decreasing with Threshold
    • Inverse Exponential
slide19

Income Redistributive Policies

Full-Range

Flat Rate

Flat Rate

with Threshold

Inverse

Exponential

Full-Range

Decreasing

Decreasing

with Threshold

Full Range

Increasing

Increasing

with Threshold

Exponential

income redistributive policies
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies1
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies2
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies3
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies4
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies5
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies6
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies7
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies8
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies9
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies10
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies11
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies12
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies13
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

income redistributive policies14
Income Redistributive Policies

Tax Reduced

Allowance Added Income

Income

slide35
Thank You !

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