Impact of personal value on spectator sport consumption and engagement in china
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Impact of Personal Value on Spectator Sport Consumption and Engagement in China. Dr. Xiangren Yi Li Chen Shandong University Delaware State University. Background. Sport sociologists have suggested that sport is a microcosm of society (Eitzen, 2005;

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Impact of Personal Value on Spectator Sport Consumption and Engagement in China

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Impact of Personal Value on Spectator Sport Consumption and Engagement in China

Dr. Xiangren Yi Li Chen

Shandong University Delaware State University


  • Sport sociologists have suggested that

    sport is a microcosm of society (Eitzen, 2005;

    Snyder & Spreizter, 1974)

  • People learn values associated with sport such as honor, glory, nobility, skill, courage, strength, wit, wisdom (Sage, 1970), acceptance of authority, obedience to rules, and self-discipline (Snyder & Spreizter, 1989)


  • The personal values associated with sport seem to reflect general social values and focus more on participation in sports rather than watching sports

  • These values seem to represent one type of values, moral values, but neglect other possible types such as psychological, sociological, and religious values(Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001)


  • Previous research has examined the motives driving consumers’ attendance at sporting events (e.g., James & Ross, 2004; Trail & James, 2001; Wann, 1995).

  • Motives that have been examined include enjoying the drama of sport, appreciating the physical skills of athletes, a team’s effort, the aesthetic value of sports, escape, social interaction, interaction with family, team affiliation, and vicarious achievement.

  • Such studies provide insight regarding the motives people have for attending games.


  • They do not provide insight on the types of values people associate with watching spectator sports

  • Values extend over time whereas motives may be temporal or situation-specific

  • Although values have been widely addressed in psychology and other disciplines, they have received limited attention in the study of sport consumer behaviors.


  • Marketing scholars indicated that personal values have significant impact on consumption behaviors of individuals and become important variables to analyze effort of promotional strategies and influence to public policies(e.g., Vinson, Scott, & Lamont, 1977).

  • However, limited research has been found for supporting the conceptual prediction.

Purposes of Research

  • The purposes of this study were to examine

    • Whether the personal values associate with spectator sport consumption (SSC) and spectator sport experience (SSE)

    • Whether different personal values, SSC, and SSE exist among Chinese professionals,

    • Whether personal values impact on their consumption behaviors.


  • Participant

    • A survey was conducted among randomly sampled participants (N = 800) in China.

    • A total of 776 (96%) professionals completed survey including 152 medical doctors, 156 college professors, 135 bank agents, 176 government officers, and 159 enterprise employees.

    • 100% of respondents had higher education and thus had enough knowledge to participate in the survey


  • Pilot Study

    • The pilot study was comprised of four phases that included interviews and focus groups

    • The first phase had 25 interviews with no pre-constructed interview guideline

    • The second phase was to acquire data using a different technique to achieve level of data diversity

    • The third round was to test transferability

    • The fourth phase had focus group



Phases Methods Question format

The first phase 25 interviews Unstructured

The second phase 2 focus groups Semi-structured

The third phase 11 interviews Structured

The fourth phase 1 focus group Constructed


  • The questionnaire has three parts with seven-point Likert scale

    • 31 value measures,

    • 6 modes of spectator sport consumption

    • 10 sport experience items.

  • Reliability

    • Reliability analysis were conducted on valve (Alpha = 0.953), spectator sport consumption (Alpha = 0.853), spectator sport experience (Alpha = 0.909).


  • Data Collection

    • There were two stages for data collection.

      • The data were collected from respondents answering the initial questionnaire. Regression and coefficient analyses were conducted to narrow down the list of values associated with spectator sports.

      • A revised questionnaire was used for a second data collection


  • The data analyses included

    • Coding Pressures

    • Descriptive Statistics

    • Correlation

    • ANCOVA

    • MANOVA

    • Stepwise Regression


Significant Correlation among Personal Values and SSC


Significant Correlation among Personal Values and SSE


Demographic Profiles


Demographic Characteristics


Demographic Characteristics


Demographic Characteristics


ANCOVA for Values, SSC, and SSE among professionals

with covariates Income and Education

MNOVA for Values, SSC, and SSE on Professionals, Income

and Education


Stepwise Regression

SSC Predictors








  • Values Associated with Spectator Sports

    • There exist four possible relationships:

      • clear positive relationship,

      • unclear positive relationship (social power , honest, etc)

      • negative relationship (creativity, etc)

      • situational relationship(obedient, etc)


  • Comparing with Values , Consumer and Experience among Professionals

    • ANCOVA showed No significant difference (p >. 05) was found for personal values and SSE among the professionals,

    • A significant (p < .05) difference was revealed from SSC among the professionals.

    • MONOVA showed that there are no significant among professionals in personal values, SSC, SSE .


  • Predict SSC and SSE

    • Competition, excitement, devout, peak transcendence, loyal, etc significantly predict sport spectator consumption

    • Competition, creativity, devout, honest, self-confidence, power, etc significantly predict sport spectator experiences


  • This study suggested that personal values could place important influence on sport consumption behaviors of professionals which is analytic evidence supporting the conceptual framework.

  • The results might serve as meaningful references for the sport marketers to decide what could be better promotional strategies for their marketing, and which values should be considered importantly when developing relative public policies for people at large.

Future Research

  • Extend Samples

    • The current research primarily collected data from five professionals. Future research is required to extend the sample into more general population.

    • Collect data by differences nationality

Future Research

  • Revision Instrument

    • Add more values into questionnaire.

    • Find how these values are fulfilled through spectator sports

  • Mediator and Moderator

    • Value-based attitudes (themes) → Behavior (SSC &SSE)

      • Combined themes into regression analysis

      • Values associated with sport participation.

Thank You!!

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