W orkshops in i nformation s kills and e lectronic r esources
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W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. Doing a Systematic Review Jo Hunter Linda Atkinson Oxford University Health Care Libraries 1 March 2006. W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. What is a Systematic Review?

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W orkshops in i nformation s kills and e lectronic r esources

Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Doing a Systematic Review

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries

1 March 2006


W orkshops in i nformation s kills and e lectronic r esources1

Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What is a Systematic Review?

“A scientific tool which can be used to summarise, appraise and communicate the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of research”

(NHS CRD, 1996)


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What is a Systematic Review?

  • Systematic in identifying/evaluating

  • Objective in interpretation

  • Explicit in statement of objectives

  • Reproducible in methodology

    (Greenhalgh, 2000)


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What about “Meta-analysis”?

“A specific statistical technique used to combine the results of several studies into a single estimate”

(Sackett et al., 1991)


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Systematic Review - Advantages

  • Summarise information

  • Overcome biasinherent in small studies

  • Overcome lack of generalisability

  • Heterogeneity (inconsistency in results) can be identified


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Which organisations produce systematic reviews?

  • Cochrane Collaboration

  • NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

  • Campbell Collaboration


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The Cochrane Collaboration

  • Formed in 1993

  • International, with several Centres

  • Systematic reviews available via the Cochrane Library

    www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp


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The NHS CRD

  • Formed in 1994

  • Works with the UK Cochrane Centre

  • Produces guidance on writing systematic reviews

  • Provides access to systematic reviews

    www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/index.htm


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The Campbell Collaboration

  • Set up along similar lines to the Cochrane Collaboration

  • Access to systematic reviews re: social and educational policies/practices

    www.campbellcollaboration.org


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What’s the best methodology?

  • Updated guidance from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/report4.htm

  • Up-to-date advice from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/reviews.htm

  • The Cochrane Handbook www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook


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Three Broad Stages

  • Planning – identify need, prepare proposal, develop protocol

  • Conducting – find, select, appraise, extract, synthesise literature

  • Reporting – write up and disseminate results


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Stage 1: Planning

  • Is there a need?

  • Find a team

    • Someone to obtain funding

    • Someone to do most of the work

    • An information specialist

    • A methodologist

    • A content expert

    • An advisory group


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Stage 1: Planning

  • Draw up a protocol

    • Background & rationale

    • Study question(s)

    • Inclusion criteria

    • Details of literature search

    • Data extraction

    • Proposed analysis

    • Plans for reporting/dissemination

      (Dinnes, 2000)


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Stage 2: Conducting the review

  • Literature search - comprehensive

  • Select studies – use an eligibility form

  • Assess qualityof selected studies – use checklist

  • Data extraction – use forms/tables

  • Data synthesis – qualitative & quantitative


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Stage 3: Reporting & Dissemination

  • Succinct and consistent report

  • Publish in a professional journal

  • Promote in conference presentations

    www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp


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Bibliography

  • Dinnes J. (2000). Protocols for systematic reviews. Presentation at the Systematic Review Development Programme, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford 11/09/00.

  • Greenhalgh T. (2000). How to read a paper: the basics of evidence based medicine. (2nd edition). London: BMJ Publishing.

  • Sackett D., Haynes RB., Guyatt GH. & Tugwell P. (1991). Clinical Epidemiology: A basic science for clinical medicine. 2nd edition. Little, Brown & Company.


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What did you think of this presentation?

www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/courses/feedback

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries


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