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W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. Doing a Systematic Review Jo Hunter Linda Atkinson Oxford University Health Care Libraries 1 March 2006. W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. What is a Systematic Review?

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w orkshops in i nformation s kills and e lectronic r esources
Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Doing a Systematic Review

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries

1 March 2006

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What is a Systematic Review?

“A scientific tool which can be used to summarise, appraise and communicate the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of research”

(NHS CRD, 1996)

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What is a Systematic Review?

  • Systematic in identifying/evaluating
  • Objective in interpretation
  • Explicit in statement of objectives
  • Reproducible in methodology

(Greenhalgh, 2000)

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What about “Meta-analysis”?

“A specific statistical technique used to combine the results of several studies into a single estimate”

(Sackett et al., 1991)

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Systematic Review - Advantages

  • Summarise information
  • Overcome biasinherent in small studies
  • Overcome lack of generalisability
  • Heterogeneity (inconsistency in results) can be identified
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Which organisations produce systematic reviews?

  • Cochrane Collaboration
  • NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
  • Campbell Collaboration
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The Cochrane Collaboration

  • Formed in 1993
  • International, with several Centres
  • Systematic reviews available via the Cochrane Library

www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp

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The NHS CRD

  • Formed in 1994
  • Works with the UK Cochrane Centre
  • Produces guidance on writing systematic reviews
  • Provides access to systematic reviews

www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/index.htm

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The Campbell Collaboration

  • Set up along similar lines to the Cochrane Collaboration
  • Access to systematic reviews re: social and educational policies/practices

www.campbellcollaboration.org

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What’s the best methodology?

  • Updated guidance from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/report4.htm
  • Up-to-date advice from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/reviews.htm
  • The Cochrane Handbook www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook
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Three Broad Stages

  • Planning – identify need, prepare proposal, develop protocol
  • Conducting – find, select, appraise, extract, synthesise literature
  • Reporting – write up and disseminate results
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Stage 1: Planning

  • Is there a need?
  • Find a team
    • Someone to obtain funding
    • Someone to do most of the work
    • An information specialist
    • A methodologist
    • A content expert
    • An advisory group
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Stage 1: Planning

  • Draw up a protocol
    • Background & rationale
    • Study question(s)
    • Inclusion criteria
    • Details of literature search
    • Data extraction
    • Proposed analysis
    • Plans for reporting/dissemination

(Dinnes, 2000)

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Stage 2: Conducting the review

  • Literature search - comprehensive
  • Select studies – use an eligibility form
  • Assess qualityof selected studies – use checklist
  • Data extraction – use forms/tables
  • Data synthesis – qualitative & quantitative
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Stage 3: Reporting & Dissemination

  • Succinct and consistent report
  • Publish in a professional journal
  • Promote in conference presentations

www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp

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Bibliography

  • Dinnes J. (2000). Protocols for systematic reviews. Presentation at the Systematic Review Development Programme, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford 11/09/00.
  • Greenhalgh T. (2000). How to read a paper: the basics of evidence based medicine. (2nd edition). London: BMJ Publishing.
  • Sackett D., Haynes RB., Guyatt GH. & Tugwell P. (1991). Clinical Epidemiology: A basic science for clinical medicine. 2nd edition. Little, Brown & Company.
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What did you think of this presentation?

www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/courses/feedback

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries

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