W orkshops in i nformation s kills and e lectronic r esources
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W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. Doing a Systematic Review Jo Hunter Linda Atkinson Oxford University Health Care Libraries 1 March 2006. W orkshops in I nformation S kills and E lectronic R esources. What is a Systematic Review?

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Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Doing a Systematic Review

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries

1 March 2006


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What is a Systematic Review?

“A scientific tool which can be used to summarise, appraise and communicate the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of research”

(NHS CRD, 1996)


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What is a Systematic Review?

  • Systematic in identifying/evaluating

  • Objective in interpretation

  • Explicit in statement of objectives

  • Reproducible in methodology

    (Greenhalgh, 2000)


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What about “Meta-analysis”?

“A specific statistical technique used to combine the results of several studies into a single estimate”

(Sackett et al., 1991)


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Systematic Review - Advantages

  • Summarise information

  • Overcome biasinherent in small studies

  • Overcome lack of generalisability

  • Heterogeneity (inconsistency in results) can be identified


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Which organisations produce systematic reviews?

  • Cochrane Collaboration

  • NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

  • Campbell Collaboration


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

The Cochrane Collaboration

  • Formed in 1993

  • International, with several Centres

  • Systematic reviews available via the Cochrane Library

    www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

The NHS CRD

  • Formed in 1994

  • Works with the UK Cochrane Centre

  • Produces guidance on writing systematic reviews

  • Provides access to systematic reviews

    www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/index.htm


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

The Campbell Collaboration

  • Set up along similar lines to the Cochrane Collaboration

  • Access to systematic reviews re: social and educational policies/practices

    www.campbellcollaboration.org


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What’s the best methodology?

  • Updated guidance from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/report4.htm

  • Up-to-date advice from the NHS CRD www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/reviews.htm

  • The Cochrane Handbook www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Three Broad Stages

  • Planning – identify need, prepare proposal, develop protocol

  • Conducting – find, select, appraise, extract, synthesise literature

  • Reporting – write up and disseminate results


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Stage 1: Planning

  • Is there a need?

  • Find a team

    • Someone to obtain funding

    • Someone to do most of the work

    • An information specialist

    • A methodologist

    • A content expert

    • An advisory group


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Stage 1: Planning

  • Draw up a protocol

    • Background & rationale

    • Study question(s)

    • Inclusion criteria

    • Details of literature search

    • Data extraction

    • Proposed analysis

    • Plans for reporting/dissemination

      (Dinnes, 2000)


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Stage 2: Conducting the review

  • Literature search - comprehensive

  • Select studies – use an eligibility form

  • Assess qualityof selected studies – use checklist

  • Data extraction – use forms/tables

  • Data synthesis – qualitative & quantitative


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Stage 3: Reporting & Dissemination

  • Succinct and consistent report

  • Publish in a professional journal

  • Promote in conference presentations

    www.nelh.nhs.uk/cochrane.asp


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

Bibliography

  • Dinnes J. (2000). Protocols for systematic reviews. Presentation at the Systematic Review Development Programme, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford 11/09/00.

  • Greenhalgh T. (2000). How to read a paper: the basics of evidence based medicine. (2nd edition). London: BMJ Publishing.

  • Sackett D., Haynes RB., Guyatt GH. & Tugwell P. (1991). Clinical Epidemiology: A basic science for clinical medicine. 2nd edition. Little, Brown & Company.


Workshopsin Information Skillsand Electronic Resources

What did you think of this presentation?

www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/courses/feedback

Jo Hunter

Linda Atkinson

Oxford University Health Care Libraries


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