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Stress Management. Outline. What is stress and how does it affect potato plants? How does stress impact external tuber quality? How does stress impact internal tuber quality? How can you avoid or manage stress?. What is Stress?.

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Outline
Outline

  • What is stress and how does it affect potato plants?

  • How does stress impact external tuber quality?

  • How does stress impact internal tuber quality?

  • How can you avoid or manage stress?


What is stress
What is Stress?

  • Any condition (moisture availability, temperature, fertility, etc.) that is above or below the optimum for plant growth and tuber production

  • The “ideal” temperature for growing potatoes is 77oF in the day and 54oF at night.

“Therefore, potatoes grown in all regions experience temperature stress every year”


What is stress1
What is Stress?

  • The impacts of stress tend to be cumulative

    - 10 days of heat stress is more damaging than 5 days

    - Two stresses together (ex. heat and water stress) tend to cause more damage than a single stress


Moisture stress and high soil temperatures combine to cause damage
Moisture Stress and High Soil Temperatures Combine to Cause Damage

No Stress

Hot Soil

Heat cables increase soil temperature by 6 to 9 F

Source: Kleinkopf, 1988


Environment uncontrollable
Environment (uncontrollable)

Sources of Stress

  • Heat/cold/frost

  • Drought/excess rainfall

  • Hail/lightening

  • Air pollution


Management controllable
Management (controllable)

Sources of Stress

  • Soil moisture deficits or excesses

  • Nutrient deficits or excesses

  • Poor stand establishment

  • Compaction/root pruning

  • Physical damage to tubers


Water stress
Water Stress

  • Low moisture availability

  • High demand (heat, wind, excess N)

  • Low capacity (poor root system)


Heat and water stress occur together
Heat and Water Stress Occur Together

  • As temperatures increase, so does water use by the plant


Effect of et rate on level of soil moisture that can be used before development of stress
Effect of ET rate on level of soil moisture that can be used before development of stress

High

Low

Data for a sandy soil in Egypt


Stress related problems
Stress–related problems before development of stress

Internal

  • Hollow heart / Brown center

  • Internal brown spot (IBS)

  • Sugar ends

  • Vascular discoloration

External

  • Tuber size

  • Malformation

  • Second growth

  • Chain tubers

  • Growth cracks

  • Greening

  • Enlarged lenticels

  • Heat sprouts

  • Black heart

  • *Blackspot /shatter bruise

  • Low starch

  • High sugars

  • *Frost

  • *Chilling injury

  • Pressure bruise

*Immediate


From Hiller, WCS 19:169 before development of stress


Stress related problems1
Stress-related problems before development of stress

Requirements for Expression

  • Susceptible variety

    +

  • Stress conditions

    • Weather or environment

    • Management mistakes


Russet burbank

Common Defects Triggers before development of stress

Malformations Heat, drought

Growth cracks Moisture stress, erratic growth

Sugar ends Heat

Hollow heart Cold soil, low tuber set

Stem end ??

Low solids Heat, early death

Net necrosis PLRV

Russet Burbank


Outline1
Outline before development of stress

  • What is stress and how does it affect potato plants?

  • How does stress impact external tuber quality?

  • How does stress impact internal tuber quality?

  • How can you avoid or manage stress?


Around the eyes and bud end is where growth resumes


1 how does stress affect sugar development energy production and use
1. How does stress affect sugar development - Energy production and use

  • The temperature optimum for Photosynthesis (energy production) is around 65o to 75o F,Respiration (energy use) continues to increase with temperature

Source: Winkler, 1961


Plants continue to produce sugars on hot days
Plants Continue to Produce Sugars on Hot Days production and use

Temperature (F)

  • There is a period during the morning where photosynthesis reaches the optimum, even on very hot days

61 82 93 86

“Mid-day depression”

Source: Dwelle, 1983


Dry matter partitioning – two temps production and use

APJ 69:653

Harvest Index = .5 to .7

Harvest Index = .2 to .7


Outline2
Outline production and use

  • What is stress and how does it affect potato plants?

  • How does stress impact external tuber quality?

  • How does stress impact internal tuber quality?

  • How can you avoid or manage stress?


Stems

Sugar

Starch


Carbohydrate metabolism in potato tubers
Carbohydrate metabolism in potato tubers has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

During normal tuber growth, metabolism is driven towards the production of starch. Stress (in-season or in-storage) changes enzyme activity and membrane function


Effect of temperature on specific gravity of potatoes
Effect of temperature on specific gravity of potatoes has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

Air Temperature (oF)

Cool (77/54)

Hot (100/82)


Comparison of soil temperatures at oakes nd
Comparison of soil temperatures at Oakes, ND has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

High sugar ends


Kincaid et al., 1993 has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

R2 = 0.42

Irrigation Frequency

“Soil temperature was directly related to percentage of sugar end tubers”


E has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

0”

W

36.6%

50.4%

4”

63.4%

8”

75.7%

Impact of row orientation on Russet Burbank quality

Percentage of 10 Tuber Sample with Sugar Ends


Row width can influence sugar ends
Row Width Can Influence Sugar Ends has a harder time converting sugar into starch. The tuber becomes a weaker sink, and the end result is lower specific gravity and more sugar ends

Source: Shock, 1988


Storage at 48 F

End of stress

Harvest

Source: Sowokinos


Effect of a single water stress event on the incidence of disorders in russet burbank
Effect of a single water stress event on the incidence of disorders in Russet Burbank

Source: Shock, OSU


Pattern of hormone changes during tuber growth and storage

Stress event disorders in Russet Burbank

High or erratic N availability

Pattern of hormone changes during tuber growth and storage


Outline3
Outline disorders in Russet Burbank

  • What is stress and how does it affect potato plants?

  • How does stress impact external tuber quality?

  • How does stress impact internal tuber quality?

  • How can you avoid or manage stress?


Principles of stress avoidance and management
Principles of Stress Avoidance and Management disorders in Russet Burbank

  • Maintain uniform and optimal conditions throughout the plant growth and tuber bulking growth phases

  • Minimize environmental stress

  • Avoid added management stress

  • Plant resistant varieties


Don t contribute to environmental stress with management stress
Don’t Contribute to Environmental Stress with Management Stress!

  • Poor root development

    • Compaction and late cultivation

  • Poor vine development

    • Erratic stands and early stress

  • Excess vine development

    - Too much N

  • Disease


Plant root systems 21 days after emergence extracted from: Stress!compacted soil (left)uncompacted soil (right)


Source modified from weaver 1926

By row closure a healthy potato root system extends more than 3 feet down and across the entire furrow

Source: Modified from Weaver (1926)

1 ft

2 ft

3 ft

Root Pruning

Compact layer



Excess nitrogen fertility can lead to an imbalance in vine and root growth
Excess Nitrogen Fertility Can Lead to temperature?an Imbalance in Vine and Root Growth

Vines with too much N

Roots with too much N


Stress water heat nutrients pests can lead to premature plant death
Stress (water, heat, nutrients, pests) can lead to temperature?premature plant death


Impact of resistance on stress management
Impact of Resistance on Stress Management temperature?

Intensity of Management Required

Resistance Level Input Level

High Low

Moderate Moderate

Low High


Sugar end susceptibility by variety
Sugar End Susceptibility by Variety temperature?

Parma, ID - 1994


Varieties with stress resistance
Varieties With Stress Resistance temperature?

Heat and Drought Stress

Ranger Russet Gem Russet

Russet Norkotah Clearwater Russet

Umatilla Russet


Water use efficiency wue
Water Use Efficiency (WUE) temperature?

18 cwt/ in of water

15 cwt/ in of water


Varieties with stress resistance1
Varieties With Stress Resistance temperature?

Defoliation Stress

Ranger Russet Alturas

Gem Russet Bannock Russet

Summit Russet

Russet Norkotah (affects yield)


Varieties with stress resistance2
Varieties With Stress Resistance temperature?

Stresses Conducive to Hollow Heart

Ranger Russet Alturas

Shepody Umatilla Russet



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