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The Future of Cities: Dense of Dispersed? Symposium Introduction. Antony Wood CTBUH Executive Director AAAS Conference Chicago, February 2014. The Future of Cities. Moderators

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The Future of Cities:

Dense of Dispersed?

Symposium Introduction

Antony Wood

CTBUH Executive Director

AAAS Conference

Chicago, February 2014


The Future of Cities

Moderators

Antony Wood, Executive Director, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat / Associate Studio Professor, Illinois Institute of Technology

John Ronan, John Ronan Architects / Professor, Illinois Institute of Technology

Panelists

Wiel Arets, Dean, College of Architecture, Illinois Institute of Technology

William F. Baker, Structural Engineering Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Francesca Birks, Senior Consultant, Foresight Team, Arup

Virginia Parks, Associate Professor, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago

Saskia Sassen, Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology, Columbia University


Tall Building Trend: An Increase in Height

+12m

+13%

+13m

+12%

+68m

+57%

+26m

+14%

+28m

+13%

+42m

+17%

+36m

+13%

+62m

+19%

+36m

+9%

+25m

+6%

+10m

+2%

+56m

+12%

+320m

+63%

+39m

+71%

Incremental height changes in the World’s Tallest Buildings (as of April 2013)



Tall Building Trend: A Change in Location

Tallest Buildings by Location (as of January 2014)


Tall Building Trend: A Change in Function

Tallest Buildings by Function (as of January 2014)


Tall Building Trend: A Change in Material

Tallest Buildings by Structural Material (as of January 2014)


Tall Buildings and Place:

The Shortfall of Tall?


Tall Buildings & Sustainability – the Case ‘Against’

  • Higher embodied energy in constructing at height – structure, materials etc.

  • Greater wind loading at height (impact on size of primary structure, façade design etc).

  • High energy consumption in operation – elevators, services etc.

  • Higher energy consumption for cleaning & maintenance e.g. replacement of façade joints

  • Energy consumption is a small % of total costs c.f. salaries etc – little incentive for owners

  • Implications of Power failure (impact on vertical circulation, safety etc).

  • Recycling potential / urban impact of demolition / disposal of materials after demolition.

  • Less net usable area to gross area and restrictions on internal planning; vertical core etc.

  • Anti-social internal environment – lack of open, recreational, communal space

  • ‘Sealed’ environments at height – thus requiring air conditioning, artificial lighting etc.

  • Safety and Security fears (especially post 9/11) – including safety during construction.

  • People suffering from vertigo – building occupation / human rights legislation

  • Impact on urban scale; cities that ‘don’t want’ to be tall & ground interface

  • Wind downdrafts / Overshadowing (solar rights / right to light) / Wind rights (ventilation?)

  • etc…………..


Transport and Urban Density

Source: Newman, Peter and Jeffrey Kenworthy, Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence, Opolis: An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies: Vol. 2: No. 1, Article 3. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cssd/opolis/vol2/iss1/art3, (2006)


Tall Building Driver Four: Urbanization

Source: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Graphic: Paul Scruton


Tall Building Driver Six: Population Shifts

  • USA Pop. Growth / Immigration

  • 0.9% per annum (world average = 1.09%)

  • 0.9% x 3.2 million people =

  • 280,000 urban growth annually

  • Not equal across cities. Rust belt to Sun-belt, etc.

Source: Brookings Institution


Shortfall 1: The Commercial Design Approach

1958. Seagram Building, New York,

Mies van der Rohe & Philip Johnson


Shortfall 2: The Iconic -Sculptural Design Approach

2007. RAK Financial City, Ras Al Khaimah,

UAE, Rakeen



A new Vernacular for the Skyscraper, for Cities? Building Menagerie?

Future Tall Buildings should………

Relate to the physical characteristics of place

Relate to the environmental characteristics of place

Relate to the cultural characteristics of place

Vary with height – in form, texture, scale (and program) – not be just vertical extrusions of an efficient floor plan

Accommodate new and multiple functions – bringing all aspects of the city into the sky

Provide significant communal, open, recreational space

Maximize layers of usage on all systems and materials

Introduce more facade opacity (and variation / texture) in skin/envelope

Embrace organic vegetation as an essential part of the material palette

Introduce physical, circulatory and programmatic connections – skybridges

What is needed?....... A new regulatory, political / financial model for developing vertical cities


Design Principle 4: Tall Buildings should Building Menagerie?Vary with height – in form, texture, scale (and program) – not be just vertical extrusions of an efficient floor plan


2003. “SkyBox version 1” Building Menagerie?Eva Young, University of Nottingham


Burj Khalifa, Dubai, 2010 Building Menagerie?

SOM

The environment changes with height too!

+6 degrees in external air temperature at top of tower, compared to bottom


Design Principle 5: Building Menagerie?Accommodate new and multiple functions – bringing all aspects of the city into the sky


Conceptual Diagram Building Menagerie?

Tall Building as “City

in the Sky”

2006. “Vertical Farm”Paul Foster & Darran Oxley

University of Nottingham


Design Principle 6: Tall Buildings should p Building Menagerie?rovide significant communal, open, recreational space


Commerzbank Building Menagerie?Frankfurt, Germany


Commerzbank Building Menagerie?Frankfurt, Germany

View of high-level sky garden

Inward facing office


Design Principle 9: Embrace Building Menagerie?organic vegetation as an essential part of the material palette


Design Principle 10: Building Menagerie?Introduce physical, circulatory and programmatic connections – skybridges


1998 - Petronas Towers, Building Menagerie?Kuala Lumpur.

Cesar Pelli


Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort Building Menagerie?

2009. The Pinnacle @ Duxton

Singapore

ARC Studio


Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort Building Menagerie?

2010. Marina Bay Sands

Singapore

Moshe Safdie Architects


What is needed?....... Building Menagerie?A new regulatory, political & financial model for urban development………


The horizontal 2-dimensional planning model flipped vertical into 3- Dimensions……..

Source: Pomeroy, J. (2009) “The Skycourt – A comparison of Four Case Studies,”

CTBUH Journal, Issue I, p. 35.


The Future of Sustainable Cities? into 3- Dimensions……..


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