Media effects and cultural approaches to research
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Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research. “What are the media doing to us?”. Early Research. Propaganda Analysis Public Opinion Research Social Psychology Studies Marketing Research. Social Psychology Studies. Attempt to measure behavior and cognition.

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Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research

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Media effects and cultural approaches to research

Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research

“What are the media doing to us?”


Early research

Early Research

  • Propaganda Analysis

  • Public Opinion Research

  • Social Psychology Studies

  • Marketing Research


Social psychology studies

Social Psychology Studies

  • Attempt to measure behavior and cognition.

  • The Payne Studies examined young peoples’ (physiological) reactions to movies. Viewing of sexual and aggressive behavior.

  • Established the model for studies of TV viewing in the 60s.


Key phases in research

Key Phases in Research

  • Hypodermic Needle

  • Direct Effects

  • Magic Bullet

  • Led to formulation of the transportation model.


Media effects and cultural approaches to research

Transportation Model

meaning

meaning

Channel or Medium

SENDER

MESSAGE

RECEIVER

ENCODE

DECODE

Feedback loop


Minimal effects model

Minimal Effects Model

  • Selective Exposure

  • Selective Retention

  • Without filters we would be overwhelmed by stimuli.

  • Sense-Select-Perceive-Remember-Learn-Know.


Uses gratifications model

Uses & Gratifications Model

  • For what do you use the media?

  • What needs does is gratify?


Approaches to media effects

Approaches to media effects

  • Scientific method. Based on Hypotheses, research and testing, and analyses.

  • Experiments. Problems?

  • Surveys.

  • Validity & reliability.

  • Longitudinal study.

  • Content Analysis.


Social learning theory

Social Learning Theory

  • Media portrayals teach us our “roles.”

  • Gender, race, socioeconomic.


Explaining media effects

Explaining media effects.

  • Agenda Setting

  • Cultivation Effect

  • Status Conferral

  • Most media research best explains effects on individuals – not on community or social life.


Cultural studies

Cultural Studies

  • Textual: looking at interpretation and meaning of symbols of culture.

  • Audience: how people use cultural content.

  • Political Economy: concern over the increasing conglomeration of media ownership.


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