Exam 4 Review
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Exam 4 Review Exam Date Tuesday, Dec. 10 8:00 – 9:50 a.m. Chapters 10 and 12 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Exam 4 Review Exam Date Tuesday, Dec. 10 8:00 – 9:50 a.m. Chapters 10 and 12. 2) Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle? A) CO2 and glucose B) H2O and O2 C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+ D) electrons and H+

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Exam 4 Review Exam Date Tuesday, Dec. 10 8:00 – 9:50 a.m. Chapters 10 and 12

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Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Exam 4 Review

Exam Date Tuesday, Dec. 10 8:00 – 9:50 a.m.

Chapters 10 and 12

2) Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A) CO2 and glucose

B) H2O and O2

C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+

D) electrons and H+

E) ATP and NADPH

3) What are the products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle?

A) oxygen and carbon dioxide

B) carbon dioxide and RuBP

C) water and carbon

D) electrons and photons

E) ATP and NADPH

7) When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?

A) reducing NADP+

B) splitting the water molecules

C) chemiosmosis

D) the electron transfer system of photosystem I

E) the electron transfer system of photosystem II

8) A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?

A) red and yellow

B) blue and violet

C) green and yellow

D) blue, green, and red

E) green, blue, and yellow


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Use the following information to answer the questions below.

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.

9) What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?

A) Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas.

B) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light.

C) Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.

D) Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths.

E) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis.

10) An outcome of this experiment was to help determine

A) the relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms.

B) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration.

C) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released.

D) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis.

E) the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis.

12) Figure 10.1 shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?

A) Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths.

B) Bright sunlight destroys photosynthetic pigments.

C) Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light.

D) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.

E) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

15) In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the antenna pigment molecules?

A) split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll

B) harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll

C) synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi

D) transfer electrons to ferredoxin and then NADPH

E) concentrate photons within the stroma

16) The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because

A) there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.

B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

C) there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.

D) it absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.

E) the plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

17) Which of the events listed below occur in the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A) NADP is produced.

B) NADPH is reduced to NADP+.

C) carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA.

D) ATP is phosphorylated to yield ADP.

E) light is absorbed and funneled to reaction-center chlorophyll a.

22) As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?

A) photosystem II

B) photosystem I

C) cyclic electron flow

D) linear electron flow

E) Chlorophyll


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

23) Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?

A) the splitting of water

B) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

C) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

D) the synthesis of ATP

E) the reduction of NADP+

28) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?

A) Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.

B) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.

C) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals.

D) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration.

E) Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic.

29) Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?

A) thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

B) stroma of chloroplasts

C) inner membrane of mitochondria

D) matrix of mitochondria

E) cytoplasm

32) Reduction of NADP+ occurs during

A) photosynthesis.

B) respiration.

C) both photosynthesis and respiration.

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

E) photorespiration.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

38) Some photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., purple sulfur bacteria) have photosystem I but not II, while others (e.g. cyanobacteria) have both PSI and PSII. Which of the following might this observation imply?

A) Photosystem II must have been selected against in some species.

B) Photosystem I must be more ancestral.

C) Photosystem II may have evolved to be more photoprotective.

D) Cyclic flow must be more primitive than linear flow of electrons.

E) Cyclic flow must be the most necessary of the two processes.

40) Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants?

A) They serve as accessory pigments.

B) They dissipate excessive light energy.

C) They cover the sensitive chromosomes of the plant.

D) They reflect orange light.

E) They take up toxins from the water.

44) What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide

B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide

C) split water and release oxygen

D) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast

E) synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

53) In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a 6 carbon molecule, which is then split in two. After phosphorylation and reduction, what more needs to happen in the Calvin cycle?

A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH

B) inactivation of RuBP carboxylase enzyme

C) regeneration of ATP from ADP

D) regeneration of rubisco

E) a gain of NADPH


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

For the following questions, compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

45) Produces molecular oxygen (O2)

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

46) Requires ATP

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

47) Produces NADH

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

50) Requires CO2

A) light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

59) Which of the following statements is true concerning the figure?

A) It represents cell processes involved in C4 photosynthesis.

B) It represents the type of cell structures found in CAM plants.

C) It represents an adaptation that maximizes photorespiration.

D) It represents a C3 photosynthetic system.

E) It represents a relationship between plant cells that photosynthesize and those that cannot.

60) Referring to Figure 10.3, oxygen would inhibit the CO2 fixation reactions in

A) cell I only.

B) cell II only.

C) neither cell I nor cell II.

D) both cell I and cell II.

E) cell I during the night and cell II during the day.

61) In which cell would you expect photorespiration?

A) Cell I

B) Cell II

C) Cell I at night

D) Cell II at night

E) neither Cell I nor Cell II


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

1) The centromere is a region in which

A) chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.

B) metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate.

C) chromosomes are grouped during telophase.

D) the nucleus is located prior to mitosis.

E) new spindle microtubules form at either end.

2) What is a chromatid?

A) a chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle

B) a replicate chromosome

C) a chromosome found outside the nucleus

D) a special region that holds two centromeres together

E) another name for the chromosomes found in genetics

4) If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?

A) 10

B) 20

C) 30

D) 40

E) 80

6) How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?

A) The daughter cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.

B) The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

C) The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

D) The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.

E) The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

9) Which term describes two centrosomes arranged at opposite poles of the cell?

A) telophase

B) anaphase

C) prometaphase

D) metaphase

E) prophase

10) Which term describes centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?

A) telophase

B) anaphase

C) prometaphase

D) metaphase

E) prophase

13) If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

A) anaphase

B) prophase

C) telophase

D) metaphase

E) interphase

15) If the cell whose nuclear material is shown in the following figure continues toward completion of mitosis, which of the following events would occur next?

A) cell membrane synthesis

B) spindle fiber formation

C) nuclear envelope breakdown

D) formation of telophase nuclei

E) synthesis of chromatids


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

22) Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell completed mitosis but not cytokinesis, the result would be a cell with

A) a single large nucleus.

B) high concentrations of actin and myosin.

C) two abnormally small nuclei.

D) two nuclei.

E) two nuclei but with half the amount of DNA.

23) Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants

A) the spindles contain microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.

B) sister chromatids are identical, but they differ from one another in animals.

C) a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.

D) chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.

E) spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not.

25) Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In animal cells, taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically, taxol must affect

A) the fibers of the mitotic spindle.

B) anaphase.

C) formation of the centrioles.

D) chromatid assembly.

E) the S phase of the cell cycle.

27) Chromosomes first become visible during which phase of mitosis?

A) prometaphase

B) telophase

C) prophase

D) metaphase

E) Anaphase


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

30) Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that

A) reduces cyclin concentrations.

B) increases cyclin concentrations.

C) prevents elongation of microtubules.

D) prevents shortening of microtubules.

E) prevents attachment of the microtubules to the kinetochore.

Several organisms, primarily Protists, have what are called intermediate mitotic organization.

37) These Protists are intermediate in what sense?

A) They reproduce by binary fission in their early stages of development and by mitosis when they are mature.

B) They never coil up their chromosomes when they are dividing.

C) They use mitotic division but only have circular chromosomes.

D) They maintain a nuclear envelope during division.

E) None of them form spindles.

38) What is the most probable hypothesis about these intermediate forms of cell division?

A) They represent a form of cell reproduction which must have evolved completely separately from those of other organisms.

B) They demonstrate that these species are not closely related to any of the other Protists and may well be a different Kingdom.

C) They rely on totally different proteins for the processes they undergo.

D) They may be more closely related to plant forms that also have unusual mitosis.

E) They show some of the evolutionary steps toward complete mitosis but not all.

39) Which of the following best describes how chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle during mitosis?

A) The chromosomes are "reeled in" by the contraction of spindle microtubules.

B) Motor proteins of the kinetochores move the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules.

C) Non-kinetochore spindle fibers serve to push chromosomes in the direction of the poles.

D) both A and B

E) A, B, and C


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

43) If mammalian cells receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, they will

A) move directly into telophase.

B) complete the cycle and divide.

C) exit the cycle and switch to a nondividing state.

D) show a drop in MPF concentration.

E) complete cytokinesis and form new cell walls.

44) Cells that are in a nondividing state are in which phase?

A) G0

B) G2

C) G1

D) S

E) M

47) Which is a general term for enzymes that activate or inactivate other proteins by phosphorylating them?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk

49) Which of the following is a protein synthesized at specific times during the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form a catalytically active complex?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

51) Which of the following triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into mitosis?

A) PDGF

B) MPF

C) protein kinase

D) cyclin

E) Cdk

56) The cyclin component of MPF is destroyed toward the end of this phase:

A) G0

B) G1

C) S

D) G2

E) M

57) In the side figure , mitosis is represented by which number?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

58) G1 is represented by which number(s)?

A) I and V

B) II and IV

C) III

D) IV

E) V


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

66) Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?

A) As cells become more numerous, they begin to squeeze against each other, restricting their size and ability to produce control factors.

B) As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing.

C) As cells become more numerous, the protein kinases they produce begin to compete with each other, such that the proteins produced by one cell essentially cancel those produced by its neighbor.

D) As cells become more numerous, more and more of them enter the S phase of the cell cycle.

E) As cells become more numerous, the level of waste products increases, eventually slowing down metabolism.

67) Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

A) They do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.

B) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle.

C) They are not subject to cell cycle controls.

D) B and C only

E) A, B, and C

72) Besides the ability of some cancer cells to overproliferate, what else could logically result in a tumor?

A) metastasis

B) changes in the order of cell cycle stages

C) lack of appropriate cell death

D) inability to form spindles

E) inability of chromosomes to meet at the metaphase plate


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

  • ________________ sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. They are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules.

  • _________________obtain their organic material from other organisms.

  • Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the __________________, the interior tissue of the leaf.

  • The chlorophyll is in the membranes of ________________(connected sacs in the chloroplast); they may be stacked in columns called grana.

  • The ___________________ spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation.

  • ____________light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see.

  • A __________________ is a machine sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength.

  • Compare an absorption spectrum to an action spectrum.

  • Compare linear electron flow to cyclic electron flow.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

  • What are photosystem reaction centers and what are the components?


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Label and explain cyclic electron flow?

Why does the cyclic electron flow exist?


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Draw a the internal structures/membranes of a chloroplast below in the oval (chloroplast), label the membranes and indicate where the following reactions are located

light reactions (PSII and PSI)

calvin cycle

chemiosmosis

chloroplast


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of ____________, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division.

  • ____________cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes.

  • ______________(reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells.

  • Each duplicated chromosome has two _______ ___________, which separate during cell division.

Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases:

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Label the mitotic phases in animal cells.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Label the mitotic phases in plant cellsand explain what is going on at each phase.

1.2. 3. 4.5.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Label the bacterial cell division phases of binary fission.


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

In the cell cycle diagram next to each phase, label what is going on at that time.

Place a star at the location of the main regulatory checkpoint.

INTERPHASE

S

(DNA synthesis)

G1

Cytokinesis

G2

Mitosis

MITOTIC

(M) PHASE


Exam 4 review exam date tuesday dec 10 8 00 9 50 a m chapters 10 and 12

Explain these two figures and how they relate.

M

M

S

G1

G1

M

G1

S

G2

G2

MPF activity

Cyclin

concentration

Time

(a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during

the cell cycle

S

G1

Cdk

Cyclin accumulation

M

Degraded

cyclin

G2

G2

Cdk

checkpoint

Cyclin is

degraded

Cyclin

MPF

(b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle


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