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Chapter 10 Planning for Children. Do You Want to Have Children?. Pronatalism : attitude encouraging childbearing Family, friends, and religions encourage childbearing. Hispanics have the highest fertility rate of any racial or ethnic category. The tax structure supports parenthood.

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Chapter 10 Planning for Children

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Chapter 10 planning for children

Chapter 10Planning for Children

Do you want to have children

Do You Want to Have Children?

  • Pronatalism: attitude encouraging childbearing

  • Family, friends, and religions encourage childbearing.

  • Hispanics have the highest fertility rate of any racial or ethnic category.

  • The tax structure supports parenthood.

How many children do you want

How Many Children Do You Want?

  • Procreative liberty: the freedom to decide whether or not to have children

  • An increasing number of women are choosing to be child-free.

  • Antinatalism: a negative perspective about children; opposition to having children

How many

How Many?

  • Only 3% of adults view one child as the ideal family size.

  • The most preferred family size in the U.S. is the two-child family.

  • Religion has a strong influence on the number of children.

How many1

How Many?

  • Among affluence couples, four children may be the new norm.

  • Competitive birthing: pattern in which a woman wants to have as many children as her peers

Teenage motherhood

Teenage Motherhood

Teens have babies for a variety of reasons including limited parental supervision, not understanding the importance of contraception, and wanting someone to love.

Teenage motherhood1

Teenage Motherhood

Problems associated with teenage motherhood:

  • Stigmatization and marginalization

  • Poverty

  • Poor health habits

  • Lower academic achievement



Infertility: the inability to achieve a pregnancy after at least one year of regular sexual relations without birth control, or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth



  • Fertilization: conception; the fusion of egg and sperm

  • Pregnancy: begins when the fertilized egg is implanted in uterine wall 5 to 7 days after fertilization

  • Forty percent of infertility problems are attributable to the woman, 40% to the man, and 20% to both of them.



Assisted reproductive technology includes:

  • Hormone therapy: using drugs to stimulate ovulation

  • Artificial insemination: sperm from male partner or donor is placed directly into the cervix

  • Surrogate mother: another woman artificially inseminated



  • In vitro fertilization: egg is fertilized in small tube and implanted in mother’s uterine wall

  • Cryopreservation: procedure by which fertilized eggs are frozen and implanted at a later time

  • The typical success rate for infertile couples who want to give birth is 28%.

  • The cost of a successful outcome is over $60,000.

Planning for adoption

Planning for Adoption

  • Those who adopt are typically white, educated, and high income.

  • Adoptees are increasingly placed in nontraditional homes.



  • Adoptees in the highest demand are healthy, white infants.

  • Couples are increasingly open to cross-racial adoptions.

  • Adopting from the U.S. foster care system is generally the least expensive type of adoption.



  • Transracial adoption: the practice of parents adopting children of another race.

  • Transracial adoption is controversial.



  • Another controversy is whether adopted children should be allowed to obtain information about their biological parents.

  • The benefits of an open adoption include the opportunity for the biological parents to stay involved and adoptive parents have genetic information about their child.

Foster parenting

Foster Parenting

  • Foster parent: a person who either alone or with a spouse takes care of and fosters a child taken into custody

  • Foster parents are licensed by the state.

  • The goal of placing children in foster care is to improve their living conditions and then either return them to the parents or find another permanent home for them.



  • Induced abortion: the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through chemical or surgical means

  • Spontaneous abortion: miscarriage or unintended termination of a pregnancy



  • About 1.2 million abortions are performed annually in the U.S.

  • Abortion rate: the number of abortions per 1,000 women ages 15 to 44.

  • The abortion rate increased slightly between 2005-2008.

  • Abortion ratio: the number of abortions per 1,000 live births



  • Parental consent: woman needs permission from parent to get an abortion if she is under a certain age

  • Parental notification: woman is required to tell her parents if she is under a certain age

  • Laws regarding consent and notification vary by state.



  • Reasons for abortion include:

    • Interference with education or work

    • Not able to afford a child

    • Had completed child bearing

    • Not ready to have a child

  • Therapeutic abortion: an abortion performed to protect the life or health of a woman



Pro-life arguments:

  • Unborn fetus has a right to live.

  • Abortion is a violent and immoral solution.

  • The life of the fetus is sacred.

    Pro-Choice arguments:

  • Freedom of choice is a central value.

  • Those who bear the burden have the right to make the choice.

  • Procreation should be free of governmental control.



  • Legal abortions, performed under safe medical conditions, are physically safer than continuing a pregnancy.

  • There are possible physical complications that become more likely for late term abortions.



  • The American Psychological Association has not found significant psychological risks to an abortion.

  • Researchers found that most men were happy about their partner’s decision to have an abortion.

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