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CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals. Chapter 10 Planning and Cabling Networks. hub. switch. switch. router. router. Routers. Primary devices used to interconnect networks each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks.

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CCNA Exploration

Network Fundamentals

Chapter 10

Planning and Cabling Networks








  • Primary devices used to interconnect networks

    • each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks

  • Have the ability to break up broadcast domains (BD) and collision domains (CD)

  • Used to interconnect networks that use different technologies

    • LAN and WAN interfaces


  • A hub receives a signal, regenerates it, and sends the signal over all ports

    • ports use a shared bandwidth approach

    • reduces the LAN performance due to collisions and recovery

    • maintains a single collision domain

  • Used in a small LAN that requires low throughput requirements or when finances are limited

  • Less expensive than a switch


  • A switch receives a frame and regenerates each bit of the frame on to the appropriate destination port

  • Used to segment a network into multiple collision domains

  • Each port on the switch creates a separate collision domain

    • creates a point-to-point logical topology to the device on each port

    • provides dedicated bandwidth on each port

  • Can be used to interconnect network segments of different speeds

Device selection factors
Device Selection Factors

  • Cost

  • Speed and types of ports/interfaces

  • Expandability

  • Manageability

  • Additional features and services

Factors to consider in choosing a switch
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch

  • Cost

    • its capacity and features

    • network management capabilities, embedded security technologies and optional advanced switching technologies

  • Simple “cost per port” calculation

    • deploy one large switch at a central location

  • cost savings may be offset by the expense from the longer cables

  • Compare the cost of deploying a number of smaller switches connected by a few long cables to a central switch

  • Factors to consider in choosing a switch cont d
    Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch (cont’d)

    • Investing in redundancy

      • a secondary switch to operate concurrently with the primary central switch

      • additional cabling to allow the physical network to continue its operation even if one device fails

    Speed and type of ports interfaces
    Speed and Type of Ports (Interfaces)

    • Purchasing decisions

      • just enough ports for today’s needs

      • mixture of UTP speeds

      • both UTP and fiber ports

    Factors to consider in choosing a router
    Factors to Consider in Choosing a Router

    • Expandability

      • modular devices have expansion slots that provide the flexibility to add new modules as requirement evolve

      • basic number of fixed ports as well as expansion slots

    • Media

      • additional modules for fiber optics can increase the cost

    • Operating system features

      • different versions of the operating system support certain features and services

      • security, quality of service, voice over IP, routing multiple Layer 3 protocols, NAT and DHCP

    Lan cabling areas
    LAN Cabling Areas

    • Work area

    • Telecommunication room, also known as distribution facility

    • Backbone cabling, also known as vertical cabling

    • Distribution cabling, also known as horizontal cabling

    Lan cabling areas cont d
    LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)

    • Cable length

      • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard for UTP installations

      • maximum distance of 100 meters per channel

      • up to 5 meters of patch cable for interconnecting patch panels

      • up to 5 meters of patch cable from the cable termination point on the wall to the computer and telephone

    • Work area

      • end user devices are located

      • minimum of two jacks

      • patch cables, which are straight-through UTP cables, are used to connect end user devices to the wall jacks

      • EIA/TIA standard specifies the UTP patch cords to connect devices to the wall jacks have a maximum length of 10 meters

      • a crossover cable is used to connect a switch or hub to the wall jack

    Lan cabling areas cont d1
    LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)

    • Telecommunications room

      • contains the intermediary devices – hubs, switches, routers and data service units (DSUs)

      • where connections to intermediary devices take place

      • these devices provide the transitions between the vertical (or backbone) cabling and the horizontal cabling

      • patch cords are used to connect patch panels and intermediary devices

      • servers are also housed in the telecommunication room

    • Horizontal cabling

      • refers to cables connecting the telecommunication rooms with the work areas

      • maximum cable length from a termination point in the telecommunication room to the termination at the work area outlet must not exceed 90 meters

    Lan cabling areas cont d2
    LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)

    • Vertical cabling

      • refers to the cabling used to connect the telecommunication rooms to the equipment rooms

      • also interconnects multiple telecommunication rooms throughout the facility

      • used for aggregated traffic, such as traffic to and from the Internet access to corporate resources at a remote location

      • typically require high bandwidth media such as fiber-optic cabling

    Types of media
    Types of Media

    • UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6 and 7)

    • Fiber optics

    • Wireless

    Choosing a media
    Choosing a Media

    • Cable length

      • does the cable need to span across a room or from a building to a building?

    • Cost

      • does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type?

    • Bandwidth

      • does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth?

    • Ease of installation

      • does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is vendor required?

    • Susceptible to EMI/RFI

      • is the local environment going to interfere with the signal?

    Cable length
    Cable Length

    • Total length of cable

      • all cables from the end devices in the work area to the intermediary device, usually a switch, in the telecommunication room

      • cable from the devices to the wall plug, through the building from the wall plug to the cross-connect (or patch panel) and from the patch panel to the switch

    • Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length

      • the horizontal cabling length for UTP needs to stay within the recommended maximum distance of 90 meters

    Cable cost and bandwidth
    Cable Cost and Bandwidth

    • Cost

      • depend on media type such as copper or fiber optic

      • budget for fiber-optic cabling

      • installation costs for fiber are significantly higher

      • match the performance needs of the users with the cost of the equipment and cabling to achieve the best cost/performance ratio

    • Bandwidth

      • devices in a network have different bandwidth requirements

      • select a media that will provide high bandwidth, and can grow to meet increased bandwidth requirements and newer technologies

    Cable installation
    Cable Installation

    • Ease of cable installation varies according to cable types and building architecture

      • access to floor or roof spaces

      • physical size and properties of the cable

    • Cables are usually installed in raceways

      • a raceway is an enclosure or tube that encloses and protects the cable

    • UTP cable is relatively lightweight and flexible and has a small diameter

      • can fit into small spaces

    • Fiber-optic cables contain a thin glass fiber

      • crimps or sharp bends can break the fiber

    • Wireless networks require less cabling

    Types of interference
    Types of Interference

    • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

      • undesirable disturbance that affects an electric circuit due to electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source such as electrical machines and lighting

    • Radio frequency interference (RFI)

      • radio frequency signals transmitted from nearby radio stations that interfere with the operating frequency of the equipment

    • Wireless is the medium most susceptible to RFI

      • potential sources of interference must be identified

    Utp cabling connections
    UTP Cabling Connections

    • Specified by the Electronics Industry Alliance/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA)

    Types of interfaces
    Types of Interfaces

    • Media-dependent interface (MDI)

      • pins 1 and 2 are used for transmitting

      • pins 3 and 6 are used for receiving

      • devices such as computers, servers or routers have MDI connections

    • Media-dependent interface, crossover (MDIX)

      • devices that provide LAN connectivity such as hubs or switches use MDIX connections

      • MDIX connections swap the transmit-receive pairs internally

      • end devices connect to hubs or switches using straight-through cables

    Straight through utp cables
    Straight-Through UTP Cables

    • A straight-through cable has the same termination at each connector end

      • in accordance with either the T568A or T568B standards

    • Use the same color codes throughout the LAN for consistency in documentation

    • Used for connecting different types of devices

      • switch to router Ethernet port

      • computer to switch

      • computer to hub

    Cross over utp cables
    Cross-over UTP Cables

    • A cross-over cable has T568A termination at one end and a T568B termination at the other end

      • transmit pins at each end connect to the receive pins at the other end

    • Used for connecting same types of devices

      • switch to switch

      • switch to hub

      • computer to router Ethernet port

      • router to router Ethernet port

      • computer to computer

    Lan connections
    LAN Connections

    • Straight-through UTP cables are used for connecting different types of devices, such as a router LAN interface to a switch

    • Cross-over UTP cables provide connections between same type of devices, such as a switch to another switch

    Mdi mdix selection
    MDI/MDIX Selection

    • On some devices, ports may have a mechanism that electrically swaps the transmit and receive pairs

      • engage the mechanism to change the port setting

    • Some devices allow for selecting whether a port functions as MDI or MDIX during configuration

    • Many newer devices have an automatic crossover feature

      • device detects the required cable type and configures the interface

      • auto-detection can be enabled by default or via configuration command

    Wan connections
    WAN Connections

    • WAN links span extremely long distances

      • over wide geographic areas

    • The chart shows some examples of WAN connections

      • telephone line RJ-11 connectors for dial-up or DSL connection

      • coaxial cable F connector for cable connection

      • serial connections

    Serial cables

    Smart serial


    Winchester block

    Smart serial

    Serial Cables

    • One end of the serial cable is either a smart serial connector or a DB-60 connector

    • The other end is a large Winchester 15-pin connector

      • V.35 connection to a Physical layer device such as a CSU/DSU

    Types of devices
    Types of Devices

    • Data terminal equipment (DTE)

      • a device that receives clocking services from another device

      • device is usually at the customer or the user end of the link

    • Data communications equipment (DCE)

      • a device that supplies the clocking service to another device

      • device is typically at the WAN access provider end of the link

    Serial wan connections in the lab
    Serial WAN Connections in the Lab

    • Routers are DTE devices by default, but they can be configured to act as DCE devices

    • Two routers can be connected together using a serial V.35 cable

      • V.35 cables are available in DTE and DCE versions

    Determining the number of hosts
    Determining the Number of Hosts

    • Every device needs an IP address

      • consider present and future needs

    • Segment the network based on host requirements

      • number of hosts in a network or subnetwork is 2h – 2

    Segmenting a network
    Segmenting a Network

    • Manage broadcast traffic

      • divide one large broadcast domain into a number of smaller domains

      • not every host need to receive every broadcast

    • Different network requirements

      • group users that share similar network or computing facilities together in one subnet

    • Security

      • implement different levels of network security based on network addresses

    Creating subnets

    subnet 0

    subnet 1

    subnet 2

    subnet 3

    subnet 4

    Creating Subnets

    • Each subnet, is a physical segment, requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet

    • Number of subnets on one networks is determined using 2n

    • n is the number of bits “borrowed” from the host bits to create subnets

  • Fixed length subnet mask

    • one subnet mask for the entire network

    • each physical segment is assigned an unique subnet

    • each subnet has a same number of usable (or valid) host addresses

  • Designing an address standard
    Designing an Address Standard

    • Use addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets can assist troubleshooting and expedite adding new hosts

    • Hosts can be categorized as general users, special users, network resources, router LAN interfaces, router WAN links and management access

    • Document the IP addressing scheme

    Case study 1

    Calculating Addresses

    Case Study 1

    Network requirements
    Network Requirements

    • WAN link

      • router-to-router connection requires 2 host addresses

    • There are 4 subnetworks in this topology

      • student, instructor, administrator and WAN

    Fixed length subnet mask
    Fixed Length Subnet Mask

    • Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of host addresses

      • 29 – 2 = 510 usable host addresses

      • subnet mask is (or /23 prefix)

    • 2 bits are assigned for subnets  22 = 4 subnets

    Variable length subnet mask
    Variable Length Subnet Mask

    • is assigned to this network

    • Refer to chapter 6, p51 on Using VLSM

    Variable length subnet mask cont d
    Variable Length Subnet Mask (cont’d)

    • Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of hosts

      • mask is /23 prefix

    • 1 bit is used for subnet to create 2 subnets

      • (subnet 0)

      • (subnet 1)

    • Assign (subnet 0) to Student LAN

    • Instructor LAN has the next fewer hosts, i.e. 69 hosts

      • require 7 host bits to accommodate 69 hosts

    • Use to create 4 more subnets

      • (subnet 0)

      • (subnet 1)

      • /25 (subnet 2)

      • (subnet 3)

    Case study 2

    Calculating Addresses

    Case Study 2


    • Keep 5 host bits to accommodate the largest number of hosts

      • 25 – 2 = 30 usable host addresses

      • 3 bits are used to create 8 subnets (23 – 2)

    • Network B will use (subnet 0)

      • valid range of host addresses is to

    • Network E will use (subnet 1)

      • valid range of host addresses is to

    • Network A will use (subnet 0 in subnet 2)

      • valid range of host addresses is to

    • Network D will use (subnet 1 in subnet 2)

      • valid range of host addresses is to

    • Network C will use (subnet 0 in subnet 3)

      • valid range of host addresses is to

    Creating subnets1





















































    Creating Subnets

    Device interfaces
    Device Interfaces

    • LAN interfaces

      • used for connecting UTP cables that terminate LAN devices such as computers, switches and routers

      • AUI, Ethernet and FastEthernet

    • WAN interfaces

      • used for connecting WAN devices to CSU/DSU

      • serial and BRI

    • Console interface

      • provide configuration to the device

    • Auxiliary (AUX) interface

      • a modem is connected to the interface for remote management

    Device management connection
    Device Management Connection

    • A RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adaptor is connected to the EIA/TIA-232 serial port of the PC

      • a rollover cable is used to connect the adapter to the device console

    • The PC runs a program called a terminal emulator

      • terminal emulator program, such as HyperTerminal, is used to access the functions of a networking device

      • COM port settings are 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit and no flow control

    • This provides out-of-band console access

    • AUX port may be used for a modem-connected console

    Accessing the device console
    Accessing the Device Console

    • Connect the RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter to the console port using a rollover cable

      • newer computers that do not have an EIA/TIA-232 serial interface will need a USB-to-serial adapter

    • The HyperTerminal program can be accessed via Start  All Programs  Accessories  Communications

      • select the serial COM port and configure the port settings as shown

    • Power on the device and the boot-up sequence will be displayed in the HyperTerminal window