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CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals. Chapter 10 Planning and Cabling Networks. hub. switch. switch. router. router. Routers. Primary devices used to interconnect networks each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks.

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slide1

CCNA Exploration

Network Fundamentals

Chapter 10

Planning and Cabling Networks

routers

hub

switch

switch

router

router

Routers
  • Primary devices used to interconnect networks
    • each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks
  • Have the ability to break up broadcast domains (BD) and collision domains (CD)
  • Used to interconnect networks that use different technologies
    • LAN and WAN interfaces
slide3
Hubs
  • A hub receives a signal, regenerates it, and sends the signal over all ports
    • ports use a shared bandwidth approach
    • reduces the LAN performance due to collisions and recovery
    • maintains a single collision domain
  • Used in a small LAN that requires low throughput requirements or when finances are limited
  • Less expensive than a switch
switches
Switches
  • A switch receives a frame and regenerates each bit of the frame on to the appropriate destination port
  • Used to segment a network into multiple collision domains
  • Each port on the switch creates a separate collision domain
    • creates a point-to-point logical topology to the device on each port
    • provides dedicated bandwidth on each port
  • Can be used to interconnect network segments of different speeds
device selection factors
Device Selection Factors
  • Cost
  • Speed and types of ports/interfaces
  • Expandability
  • Manageability
  • Additional features and services
factors to consider in choosing a switch
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch
  • Cost
    • its capacity and features
    • network management capabilities, embedded security technologies and optional advanced switching technologies
  • Simple “cost per port” calculation
    • deploy one large switch at a central location
    • cost savings may be offset by the expense from the longer cables
  • Compare the cost of deploying a number of smaller switches connected by a few long cables to a central switch
factors to consider in choosing a switch cont d
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch (cont’d)
  • Investing in redundancy
    • a secondary switch to operate concurrently with the primary central switch
    • additional cabling to allow the physical network to continue its operation even if one device fails
speed and type of ports interfaces
Speed and Type of Ports (Interfaces)
  • Purchasing decisions
    • just enough ports for today’s needs
    • mixture of UTP speeds
    • both UTP and fiber ports
factors to consider in choosing a router
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Router
  • Expandability
    • modular devices have expansion slots that provide the flexibility to add new modules as requirement evolve
    • basic number of fixed ports as well as expansion slots
  • Media
    • additional modules for fiber optics can increase the cost
  • Operating system features
    • different versions of the operating system support certain features and services
    • security, quality of service, voice over IP, routing multiple Layer 3 protocols, NAT and DHCP
lan cabling areas
LAN Cabling Areas
  • Work area
  • Telecommunication room, also known as distribution facility
  • Backbone cabling, also known as vertical cabling
  • Distribution cabling, also known as horizontal cabling
lan cabling areas cont d
LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)
  • Cable length
    • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard for UTP installations
    • maximum distance of 100 meters per channel
    • up to 5 meters of patch cable for interconnecting patch panels
    • up to 5 meters of patch cable from the cable termination point on the wall to the computer and telephone
  • Work area
    • end user devices are located
    • minimum of two jacks
    • patch cables, which are straight-through UTP cables, are used to connect end user devices to the wall jacks
    • EIA/TIA standard specifies the UTP patch cords to connect devices to the wall jacks have a maximum length of 10 meters
    • a crossover cable is used to connect a switch or hub to the wall jack
lan cabling areas cont d1
LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)
  • Telecommunications room
    • contains the intermediary devices – hubs, switches, routers and data service units (DSUs)
    • where connections to intermediary devices take place
    • these devices provide the transitions between the vertical (or backbone) cabling and the horizontal cabling
    • patch cords are used to connect patch panels and intermediary devices
    • servers are also housed in the telecommunication room
  • Horizontal cabling
    • refers to cables connecting the telecommunication rooms with the work areas
    • maximum cable length from a termination point in the telecommunication room to the termination at the work area outlet must not exceed 90 meters
lan cabling areas cont d2
LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d)
  • Vertical cabling
    • refers to the cabling used to connect the telecommunication rooms to the equipment rooms
    • also interconnects multiple telecommunication rooms throughout the facility
    • used for aggregated traffic, such as traffic to and from the Internet access to corporate resources at a remote location
    • typically require high bandwidth media such as fiber-optic cabling
types of media
Types of Media
  • UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6 and 7)
  • Fiber optics
  • Wireless
choosing a media
Choosing a Media
  • Cable length
    • does the cable need to span across a room or from a building to a building?
  • Cost
    • does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type?
  • Bandwidth
    • does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth?
  • Ease of installation
    • does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is vendor required?
  • Susceptible to EMI/RFI
    • is the local environment going to interfere with the signal?
cable length
Cable Length
  • Total length of cable
    • all cables from the end devices in the work area to the intermediary device, usually a switch, in the telecommunication room
    • cable from the devices to the wall plug, through the building from the wall plug to the cross-connect (or patch panel) and from the patch panel to the switch
  • Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length
    • the horizontal cabling length for UTP needs to stay within the recommended maximum distance of 90 meters
cable cost and bandwidth
Cable Cost and Bandwidth
  • Cost
    • depend on media type such as copper or fiber optic
    • budget for fiber-optic cabling
    • installation costs for fiber are significantly higher
    • match the performance needs of the users with the cost of the equipment and cabling to achieve the best cost/performance ratio
  • Bandwidth
    • devices in a network have different bandwidth requirements
    • select a media that will provide high bandwidth, and can grow to meet increased bandwidth requirements and newer technologies
cable installation
Cable Installation
  • Ease of cable installation varies according to cable types and building architecture
    • access to floor or roof spaces
    • physical size and properties of the cable
  • Cables are usually installed in raceways
    • a raceway is an enclosure or tube that encloses and protects the cable
  • UTP cable is relatively lightweight and flexible and has a small diameter
    • can fit into small spaces
  • Fiber-optic cables contain a thin glass fiber
    • crimps or sharp bends can break the fiber
  • Wireless networks require less cabling
types of interference
Types of Interference
  • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    • undesirable disturbance that affects an electric circuit due to electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source such as electrical machines and lighting
  • Radio frequency interference (RFI)
    • radio frequency signals transmitted from nearby radio stations that interfere with the operating frequency of the equipment
  • Wireless is the medium most susceptible to RFI
    • potential sources of interference must be identified
utp cabling connections
UTP Cabling Connections
  • Specified by the Electronics Industry Alliance/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA)
types of interfaces
Types of Interfaces
  • Media-dependent interface (MDI)
    • pins 1 and 2 are used for transmitting
    • pins 3 and 6 are used for receiving
    • devices such as computers, servers or routers have MDI connections
  • Media-dependent interface, crossover (MDIX)
    • devices that provide LAN connectivity such as hubs or switches use MDIX connections
    • MDIX connections swap the transmit-receive pairs internally
    • end devices connect to hubs or switches using straight-through cables
straight through utp cables
Straight-Through UTP Cables
  • A straight-through cable has the same termination at each connector end
    • in accordance with either the T568A or T568B standards
  • Use the same color codes throughout the LAN for consistency in documentation
  • Used for connecting different types of devices
    • switch to router Ethernet port
    • computer to switch
    • computer to hub
cross over utp cables
Cross-over UTP Cables
  • A cross-over cable has T568A termination at one end and a T568B termination at the other end
    • transmit pins at each end connect to the receive pins at the other end
  • Used for connecting same types of devices
    • switch to switch
    • switch to hub
    • computer to router Ethernet port
    • router to router Ethernet port
    • computer to computer
lan connections
LAN Connections
  • Straight-through UTP cables are used for connecting different types of devices, such as a router LAN interface to a switch
  • Cross-over UTP cables provide connections between same type of devices, such as a switch to another switch
mdi mdix selection
MDI/MDIX Selection
  • On some devices, ports may have a mechanism that electrically swaps the transmit and receive pairs
    • engage the mechanism to change the port setting
  • Some devices allow for selecting whether a port functions as MDI or MDIX during configuration
  • Many newer devices have an automatic crossover feature
    • device detects the required cable type and configures the interface
    • auto-detection can be enabled by default or via configuration command
wan connections
WAN Connections
  • WAN links span extremely long distances
    • over wide geographic areas
  • The chart shows some examples of WAN connections
    • telephone line RJ-11 connectors for dial-up or DSL connection
    • coaxial cable F connector for cable connection
    • serial connections
serial cables

Smart serial

DB-60

Winchester block

Smart serial

Serial Cables
  • One end of the serial cable is either a smart serial connector or a DB-60 connector
  • The other end is a large Winchester 15-pin connector
    • V.35 connection to a Physical layer device such as a CSU/DSU
types of devices
Types of Devices
  • Data terminal equipment (DTE)
    • a device that receives clocking services from another device
    • device is usually at the customer or the user end of the link
  • Data communications equipment (DCE)
    • a device that supplies the clocking service to another device
    • device is typically at the WAN access provider end of the link
serial wan connections in the lab
Serial WAN Connections in the Lab
  • Routers are DTE devices by default, but they can be configured to act as DCE devices
  • Two routers can be connected together using a serial V.35 cable
    • V.35 cables are available in DTE and DCE versions
determining the number of hosts
Determining the Number of Hosts
  • Every device needs an IP address
    • consider present and future needs
  • Segment the network based on host requirements
    • number of hosts in a network or subnetwork is 2h – 2
segmenting a network
Segmenting a Network
  • Manage broadcast traffic
    • divide one large broadcast domain into a number of smaller domains
    • not every host need to receive every broadcast
  • Different network requirements
    • group users that share similar network or computing facilities together in one subnet
  • Security
    • implement different levels of network security based on network addresses
creating subnets

subnet 0

subnet 1

subnet 2

subnet 3

subnet 4

Creating Subnets
  • Each subnet, is a physical segment, requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet
  • Number of subnets on one networks is determined using 2n
    • n is the number of bits “borrowed” from the host bits to create subnets
  • Fixed length subnet mask
    • one subnet mask for the entire network
    • each physical segment is assigned an unique subnet
    • each subnet has a same number of usable (or valid) host addresses
designing an address standard
Designing an Address Standard
  • Use addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets can assist troubleshooting and expedite adding new hosts
  • Hosts can be categorized as general users, special users, network resources, router LAN interfaces, router WAN links and management access
  • Document the IP addressing scheme
network requirements
Network Requirements
  • WAN link
    • router-to-router connection requires 2 host addresses
  • There are 4 subnetworks in this topology
    • student, instructor, administrator and WAN
fixed length subnet mask
Fixed Length Subnet Mask
  • Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of host addresses
    • 29 – 2 = 510 usable host addresses
    • subnet mask is 255.255.254.0 (or /23 prefix)
  • 2 bits are assigned for subnets  22 = 4 subnets
variable length subnet mask
Variable Length Subnet Mask
  • 172.16.0.0/22 is assigned to this network
  • Refer to chapter 6, p51 on Using VLSM
variable length subnet mask cont d
Variable Length Subnet Mask (cont’d)
  • Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of hosts
    • mask is /23 prefix
  • 1 bit is used for subnet to create 2 subnets
    • 172.16.0.0/23 (subnet 0)
    • 172.16.2.0/23 (subnet 1)
  • Assign 172.16.0.0/23 (subnet 0) to Student LAN
  • Instructor LAN has the next fewer hosts, i.e. 69 hosts
    • require 7 host bits to accommodate 69 hosts
  • Use 172.16.2.0/23 to create 4 more subnets
    • 172.16.2.0/25 (subnet 0)
    • 172.16.2.128/25 (subnet 1)
    • 172.16.3.0 /25 (subnet 2)
    • 172.16.3.128/25 (subnet 3)
slide43
VLSM
  • Keep 5 host bits to accommodate the largest number of hosts
    • 25 – 2 = 30 usable host addresses
    • 3 bits are used to create 8 subnets (23 – 2)
  • Network B will use 192.168.1.0/27 (subnet 0)
    • valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.30
  • Network E will use 192.168.1.32/27 (subnet 1)
    • valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.62
  • Network A will use 192.168.1.64/28 (subnet 0 in subnet 2)
    • valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.65 to 192.168.1.78
  • Network D will use 192.168.1.80/28 (subnet 1 in subnet 2)
    • valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.81 to 192.168.1.94
  • Network C will use 192.168.1.96/30 (subnet 0 in subnet 3)
    • valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.97 to 192.168.1.98
creating subnets1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

Creating Subnets
device interfaces
Device Interfaces
  • LAN interfaces
    • used for connecting UTP cables that terminate LAN devices such as computers, switches and routers
    • AUI, Ethernet and FastEthernet
  • WAN interfaces
    • used for connecting WAN devices to CSU/DSU
    • serial and BRI
  • Console interface
    • provide configuration to the device
  • Auxiliary (AUX) interface
    • a modem is connected to the interface for remote management
device management connection
Device Management Connection
  • A RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adaptor is connected to the EIA/TIA-232 serial port of the PC
    • a rollover cable is used to connect the adapter to the device console
  • The PC runs a program called a terminal emulator
    • terminal emulator program, such as HyperTerminal, is used to access the functions of a networking device
    • COM port settings are 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit and no flow control
  • This provides out-of-band console access
  • AUX port may be used for a modem-connected console
accessing the device console
Accessing the Device Console
  • Connect the RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter to the console port using a rollover cable
    • newer computers that do not have an EIA/TIA-232 serial interface will need a USB-to-serial adapter
  • The HyperTerminal program can be accessed via Start  All Programs  Accessories  Communications
    • select the serial COM port and configure the port settings as shown
  • Power on the device and the boot-up sequence will be displayed in the HyperTerminal window
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