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Reading. Paradigms Chall’s stages to reading Early Literacy Issues Phonological awareness Fluency concerns Comprehending Text LEApproach Programs. What predicts reading achievement.

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Reading

Reading

  • Paradigms

  • Chall’s stages to reading

  • Early Literacy Issues

    • Phonological awareness

  • Fluency concerns

  • Comprehending Text

  • LEApproach

  • Programs


What predicts reading achievement

What predicts reading achievement

  • It has been said that some kids are bright enough to learn how to read. Afterall, teaching reading is like rocket science… right? No!

  • According to Marilyn Adams:

    • Mental age is the 3rd best predictor of 1st grade reading achievement

    • Knowing your letter sounds is the 2nd best predictor of 1st grade reading achievement

    • Knowing your letters is the best predictor of 1st grade reading achievement.

  • Think: What does this mean to your instruction?


Dyslexia

Dyslexia

IDA (2002)

Dyslexia is a specific learning disabilities that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result in a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reasoning experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.


Reading paradigms

Reading Paradigms

-A little background information on reading

Bottom-up model-> words and letters are processed and meaning is derived

Top-down model-> rely on prior knowledge and comprehension to develop reading language

Interactive-> letters and words are used to predict or hypothesize language

Which of these is phonics-oriented? Which is whole-language oriented? Explicit? Implicit?


Chall s stages of reading

Chall’s Stages of Reading


Early literacy issues based on ufli hayes lane and pullen

Early Literacy Issues (based on UFLi, Hayes, Lane, and Pullen)

  • Metalinguistic

    • phonological awareness

    • syntactic awareness

  • Print Awareness

    • genre awareness

    • concepts about print

  • Alphabetic Principle

    • letter/sound identity

  • Beginning Reading

    • sight words

    • decoding


Phonological awareness preparation in detail

Phonological Awareness preparation in detail

Connecting oral language to literacy

  • Phonemic segmentation

  • Phoneme manipulation

  • Syllable-splitting

  • Blending

  • Oddity


Phonemic segmentation

Phonemic Segmentation

Breaking apart a word or utterance by its individual sounds

  • no = /n/ /o/

  • bad = /b/ /a/ /d/

  • apple = /a/ /p/ /l/


Phoneme manipulation

Phoneme Manipulation

Changing the sounds within a word

Onset:

Say /won/. Now change the /w/ to /t/

Say /pit/. Now change the /p/ to /b/

Rime:

Say /stop/. Now change the /op/ to /at/

Say /cat/. Now change the /at/ to /ow/


Syllable splitting

Syllable Splitting

Recognition of syllables within words

Tap out the syllables for visit

ho - ping

Tap out the syllables for alligator

all – i – ga – tor


Blending

Blending

Blending phonemes and syllables is important as students decode words

Syllables

mag – a – zine = magazine

Phonemes

p-r-o-b-l-e-m= problem


Oddity

Oddity

Recognition of phoneme sounds

Which word has a different first sound?

a) floor; frog; drop; flag

b) drop; drip; flop


Reading instructional ideas

Reading Instructional Ideas

  • Word level

    • Manipulative letters (alphabetic principle)

    • Phoneme building

    • Fluency of recognition or decoding

    • CVC to CVVC for rule building

  • Sentence to Paragraph levels

    • SV; SSV; SSVV sentence development (build it slowly)

    • KWL strategy; vocabulary webs

    • Language Experience Approach

    • Paraphrasing


Assessing oral reading

Assessing oral reading

  • Word recognition accuracy on word list

    100 independent; 95 instructional; 90 frustration

  • Comprehension accuracy

    90 independent; 75 instructional; 50 frustration

    Fluency includes rate and prosody

    -between 100-140 wpm at grade level

    Watch the Video Clip of ORF Measure Administration

    https://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/orf.php#


Increasing fluency

Increasing Fluency

  • Have students practice high-frequency words

  • Have student read words, phrases, or passages in timed sessions

  • Use repeated readings until fluency is developed

  • Model fluent reading

  • Have students model reading to each other

  • Conduct a readers’ theater where students read with voice inflections

  • Review new vocabulary prior to reading a story or text (multisensory techniques are most effective)


Improving comprehension dr nancy corbett ph d

Improving ComprehensionDr. Nancy Corbett, Ph.D.

  • Improve Fluency

  • Repeated Readings

  • Provide Taped Stories

  • Use Keywords

  • Story Maps

  • Encourage Metacognition

  • Teach Paraphrasing

  • Mnemonics

  • Be creative


Language experience approach mercer p 541 2 winebrenner

Language Experience ApproachMercer p.541-2; Winebrenner

Connect a student’s interests with

reading and writing

  • Student draws picture or talks about an event

  • Teacher writes down the story

  • Student works on the dictated words individually (Elkonin boxes)

  • Student gradually writes his/her own story

    What are the benefits of such a program?


Research validated programs

Research validated programs

  • Orton-Gillingham

  • Wilson Reading System

  • Fernald Method

  • DIBELS (assessment)

  • Reading Recovery (mixed research)

    http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/english_lang/read_recov/

    http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/read.rr.research.farrall.htm


Sum it up

Sum it up

  • What is fluency?

  • How can we improve it?

  • What is phonological awareness? How does it relate to literacy?

    • Name three tasks in helping students develop it.

  • What are the three best predictors of reading achievement for young children?

  • How can we help improve reading comprehension?


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