Reading. Paradigms Chall’s stages to reading Early Literacy Issues Phonological awareness Fluency concerns Comprehending Text LEApproach Programs. What predicts reading achievement.
Dyslexia is a specific learning disabilities that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result in a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reasoning experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
-A little background information on reading
Bottom-up model-> words and letters are processed and meaning is derived
Top-down model-> rely on prior knowledge and comprehension to develop reading language
Interactive-> letters and words are used to predict or hypothesize language
Which of these is phonics-oriented? Which is whole-language oriented? Explicit? Implicit?
Connecting oral language to literacy
Breaking apart a word or utterance by its individual sounds
Changing the sounds within a word
Say /won/. Now change the /w/ to /t/
Say /pit/. Now change the /p/ to /b/
Say /stop/. Now change the /op/ to /at/
Say /cat/. Now change the /at/ to /ow/
Recognition of syllables within words
Tap out the syllables for visit
ho - ping
Tap out the syllables for alligator
all – i – ga – tor
Blending phonemes and syllables is important as students decode words
mag – a – zine = magazine
p-r-o-b-l-e-m = problem
Recognition of phoneme sounds
Which word has a different first sound?
a) floor; frog; drop; flag
b) drop; drip; flop
100 independent; 95 instructional; 90 frustration
90 independent; 75 instructional; 50 frustration
Fluency includes rate and prosody
-between 100-140 wpm at grade level
Watch the Video Clip of ORF Measure Administration
Connect a student’s interests with
reading and writing
What are the benefits of such a program?