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DENGUE PREVENTION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Oumatee Nyoka Arjoon-Singh MPH student Walden University PUBH 6165-6 Instructor: Professor Dr. Eve Clute Term 4, Year 1. Aedes aegypti: Distribution throughout the Word.

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DENGUE PREVENTION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

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Dengue prevention in trinidad and tobago

DENGUE PREVENTION IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Oumatee Nyoka Arjoon-Singh

MPH student

Walden University

PUBH 6165-6

Instructor: Professor Dr. Eve Clute

Term 4, Year 1.


Aedes aegypti distribution throughout the word

Aedes aegypti: Distribution throughout the Word

Figure 1 Source: PAHO. (2007). TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS , 2, 662-664.


Definition

DEFINITION

Classic Dengue Fever

Acute Febrile Illness:5-7 days, mild disease

Dengue triad: fever, rash headache

Nil mortality

Dengue hemorrhagic fever

Syndrome

Shock

Abnormal blood clotting mechanism

  • Wyngaarden, J. B., & Smith, L. H. (1982). Cecil Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA, United States of America: W. B. Saunders Company ,1671-1691.

  • Doug-Deen, R., & Hull, B. (1999). Public Health Surveillance. (C. Hospidales, Ed.) Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Epidemiology Centre.

Figure 2 Source: Rainbow Childrens Hospital U.S.A. (2011)

URL: http://www.rainbowhospitals.in/images/dengue-illness.gif


Learning outcomes

LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • What is dengue?

  • Importance: Trinidad and Tobago; The World

  • Demographics of Nariva/Mayaro

  • The Vector: Aedes aegypti

  • Epidemiology

  • The Public Health Laws: Trinidad and Tobago

  • Contribution: Mayaro/RioClaro Regional Corporation (M.R.C.R.C.)

  • Emphasis: (M.R.C.R.C.)

  • Dengue Prevention: Genetically Modified Mosquitoes


Trinidad and tobago present status

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO PRESENT STATUS

  • Globally: 1,000,000

  • Twin island state

  • Population: 1.3 million

  • Life expectancy: 70 Years

  • Childhood immunization: 90%

  • Urban population: 14%

  • Antenatal care coverage: 96%

  • Population using improved drinking water: 67-90%

  • Dengue 2011: 1639 cases

  • Most common-DEN V2

Unicef. (2003). At a glance Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved July 1st, 2012, from Unicef: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/trinidad_tobago_statistics.html

Figure 3 Source (Unicef, 2003)


Demographics of nariva mayaro

Demographics of nariva/ mayaro

Citizens: 48,000

The land area: 853 km2

Population density: 0-50 persons per square km

Persons per household: 3.7

Number of homes: 8,000

Ethnic groups: 80% Indo and Afro Trinidadian

“Together we are aspire, together we achieve”

CARICOMSecretariat. (2009). cso.gov. Retrieved July10, 2012, from

http://www.cso.gov.tt: http://www.cso.gov.tt/statistics/Statistics/chapter%203.pdf

Figure 4 Source (CARICOMSecretariat, 2009).


Aedes aegypti mosquito

AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITO

  • The Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in clean water

  • Remains in close proximity to feeding site.

  • Flight: less than 100 meters from its breading site.

  • Human assistance: Larva frequently transported in vases

  • Human assistance: Adults are transported in vehicles

  • Dengue Virus: females mosquitoes bites.

  • Blood meal: for development of eggs.

  • Daylight hours: Optimum time for dengue transmission

  • Improved artificial lighting: manifestation of night feeding.

Shultis, E. B. (2009). Bromeliads as a Breeding Site for the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti. Brown University, Natural and Cultural Ecology, Cairns.

Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health.


Reproduction of the mosquito

REPRODUCTION OF THE MOSQUITO

  • First dengue virus: 1953

  • Adult mosquito: develops from pupal stage.

  • Lifetime infection: female mosquito

  • Blood meal: propagation of dengue virus

  • 1 dengue infected mosquito: several persons in 1 meal

Shultis, E. B. (2009). Bromeliads as a Breeding Site for the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti. Brown University, Natural and Cultural Ecology, Cairns

TheStateofQueensland. (2009). Dengue Fever.


Aedes aegypti propagation

AEDES AEGYPTI PROPAGATION

  • Eggs-:varying amount of eggs at one sitting

  • Places: sides of containers, vases, barrels, drums and uncovered tanks.

  • Cluster Eggs: are cemented for survival

  • Appearance: The eggs are pale in colour initially.

  • Next stage, eggs becomes larva in two to four days.

  • Survival time: Eggs remain viable for a period of twelve months

  • It develops into a pupa in about seven days

Shultis, E. B. (2009). Bromeliads as a Breeding Site for the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti. Brown University, Natural and Cultural Ecology, Cairns.

Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health

Chadee, D. D., Williams, F. S., & Kitron, U. D. (2005). Impact of vector control on a dengue fever outbreak in Trinidad, West Indies, in 1998. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 10 (8), 748-754.


Aedes aegypti pupal stage

AEDES AEGYPTI PUPAL STAGE

  • Sensitive: to light, vibrations and other water disturbances.

  • Feeding: on microscopic substances and microscopic organisms.

  • Pupal stage: develops all the characteristics of the adult.

  • The pupal stage last for about 2 days

  • Flotation: by the surface tension in the water.

  • Breathing: through 2 cylindrical breathing apparatus.

  • There is no gill type arrangement and utilizes oxygen directly from the air.

  • Color changes: with maturity it gets darker in colour

Shultis, E. B. (2009). Bromeliads as a Breeding Site for the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti. Brown University, Natural and Cultural Ecology, Cairns.

Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health.


Epidemiology incidence

EPIDEMIOLOGY-Incidence

2001-250 cases

2010-600 cases-3 deaths

Increase in the number of peak periods

Multiple peak periods May to October as noted in this figure

The Americas-most cases to WHO (68% 2000-2006)

Mc-Knight, C. B., Ramkissoon, H., Seepersad-Bachan, C., George, E., & Baker, D. (2011). First Report of the Joint Select Committee on Ministries, Statutory Authorities and State Enterprises. PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Port-of-Spain: PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.

San Martin, J. L., Brathwaite, O., Zambrano, B., Solorzana, J. O., Bouckenooghe, A., Dayan, G. H., et al. (2010). The Epidemiology of Dengue in the Americas Over the Last Three Decades: A Worrisome Review. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg , 128-135.

Figure 5 (Mc-Knight, Ramkissoon, Seepersad-Bachan, George, & Baker, 2011)


Epidemiology mortality hospitalization

EPIDEMIOLOGY-Mortality/Hospitalization

  • Classic dengue: 2000, 2001, 2003-2000 cases

  • Classic dengue: 2002-6000 cases

  • Classic dengue:2004, 2005-400 and 519 cases respectfully

  • DHF:2002- 218 cases

  • Classic dengue:2008-3500 cases

  • Classic dengue fever:2010-4700cases

  • DHF:2010-3 cases/deaths

PAHO. (2007). TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2, 662-664.

Mc-Knight, C. B., Ramkissoon, H., Seepersad-Bachan, C., George, E., & Baker, D. (2011). First Report of the Joint Select Committee on Ministries, Statutory Authorities and State Enterprises. PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Port-of-Spain: PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.


Mode of transmission

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • Virus transmitted to human in mosquito saliva.

  • Virus replicates in target organs.

  • Virus infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues.

  • Virus released and circulates in blood.

  • Second mosquito ingest virus with blood.

  • Virus replicates: in mosquito midgut, salivary gland and other organs.

    Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health.

    Gubler, D. J. (1998). Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 11 (3), 480-496.


Public health law trinidad and tobago

PUBLIC HEALTH LAW TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  • The Public Health Ordinance Chapter 2 No 4 was enacted on January 1st 1917

  • Maintenance: markets, abattoirs, cemeteries and ports.

  • Services: insect vector; bat, rodent and canine control.

  • Scavenging: Rubbish, refuse and waste matter

  • Penalty: a fine of four hundred and eighty dollars or imprisonment for six months on breaking the law.

    (CaribbeanMedicalJournal, 2003)(TheGovernmentOfTrinidadAndTobago, 2009)


Local government contribution

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONTRIBUTION

  • breeding sites in the community,

  • chemical control

  • vector surveillance

  • water storage monitoring

  • Community Plastic Water Tanks

.

Dengue Case

Municipal Corporation

Case notification

Insect Vector Control Division

Doctors

Environmental Case

Public Health Inspectorate

Health Centers Surveillance Nurse

Environmental Case Control Management System for Dengue Fever in Trinidad and Tobago

.


Methods of eradication

METHODS OF ERADICATION

  • Thermal Fogging

  • Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs): Switzerland 2009

    WorldHealthOrganizaon. (2011). Dengue Bulletin. New Dehli: World Health Organization.

    Bholasingh, M. (2012, July 12th). Dengue Fever Control 2012. (O. N. Arjoon-Singh, Interviewer) Rio Claro, Nariva/Mayaro, Trinidad and Tobago.

Figure 7: Source (M.R.C.R.C., 2012)


Dengue trends nariva mayaro 1997 2012

Dengue trends Nariva/Mayaro 1997-2012

  • Bholasingh, M. (2012, July 12th). Dengue Fever Control 2012. (O. N. Arjoon-Singh, Interviewer) Rio Claro, Nariva/Mayaro, Trinidad and Tobago.


Renewed emphasis m r c r c

RENEWED EMPHASIS- M.R.C.R.C.

  • Elimination: intensification of the national programs of larviciding and source reduction.

  • Maintenance: vector control programs.

  • Source Reduction: ports, beaches, ponds, schools, government buildings, farms and periphery of the forests .

  • Water storage: Elimination of barrels and other uncovered sources with replacement by water tanks with proper covers

Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health

  • .Padmanabha, H., Soto, E., Mosquera, M., Lord, C. C., & Lounibos, L. P. (2010). Ecological Links Between Water Storage Behaviours and Aedes aegypti Production: Implications for Dengue Vector Control in Variable Climates. Eco Health, 7, 78-90.


Summary

SUMMARY

  • Understanding Dengue

  • Deaths from dengue

  • Dengue trends in Nariva/Mayaro

  • Mosquito eradication in Nariva/Mayaro

  • New methods of the M.R.C.R.C.

  • Health care burden

  • Public Health Laws: Implementation

  • Each Household: One Water Tank

  • Pipe Borne Water: Every Community

  • Dengue vaccine (Guy, Almond, & Lang, 2011)


Thank you

THANK YOU

Questions please, as we walk on the shores of Mayaro Beach, Trinidad and Tobago

Figure 9 Brighouse, R. (2008). Economic diversification: the role of the tourism secotor. (Port-of-Spain, Ed., & G. o. Tobago, Trans.) Port of Spain, Economic diversification: the role of the tourism sector: 174.-175.


References

REFERENCES

  • Arias, J. R. (2002). Dengue: How are we doing? Celebrating 200 years of PAHO . Washington D.C., United States of America: PAHO.

  • Berkow, R. (1992). The Merck Manual. (A. J. Fletcher, Ed.) Rahway, New Jersey, United Systes of America: Merck & Co.,Inc.

  • Bholasingh, M. (2012, July 12th). Dengue Fever Control 2012. (O. N. Arjoon-Singh, Interviewer) Rio Claro, Nariva/Mayaro, Trinidad and Tobago.

  • Brighouse, R. (2008). Economic diversification: the role of the tourism secotor. (Port-of-Spain, Ed., & G. o. Tobago, Trans.) Port of Spain, Economic diversification: the role of the tourism secotor: 174.

  • Brown, T. U., Babb, K., Nimrod, M., Carrington, C., & Salas, R. (2004). A Retrospective Study of the 1996 DEN-1 Epidemic in Trinidad: Demographic and Clinical Features. Geneva: World Health Organisation.


References1

REFERENCES

  • Chadee, D. D., Williams, F. S., & Kitron, U. D. (2005). Impact of vector control on a dengue fever outbreak in Trinidad, West Indies, in 1998. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 10 (8), 748-754.

  • Campione-Piccardo, J., Ruben, M., Vaughan, H., & Morris-Glasgow, V. (2003). Dengue viruses in the Caribbean. Twenty years of dengue virus isolates from the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre. West Indian Medical Journal, 52 (3), 191-198.

  • CaribbeanMedicalJournal. (2003). Public Ordinance 1917 Chapter 12: No 4. Caribbean Medical Journal, 65 (1).

  • Doug-Deen, R., & Hull, B. (1999). Public Health Surveillance. (C. Hospidales, Ed.) Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Epidemiology Centre.

  • Gubler, D. J. (1998). Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 11 (3), 480-496.


References2

REFERENCES

  • Guy, B., Almond, J., & Lang, J. (2011). Dengue vaccine prospects: a step forward. The Lancet, 377 (9763), 381-382.

  • Mc-Knight, C. B., Ramkissoon, H., Seepersad-Bachan, C., George, E., & Baker, D. (2011). First Report of the Joint Select Committee on Ministries, Statutory Authorities and State Enterprises. PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Port-of-Spain: PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.

  • Neaves, J. (2011, August 12). Ministry has enough medication to deal with dengue. Ministry has enough medication to deal with dengue . Port of Spain, Trinidad: Trinidad Express Newspapers.

  • Nielsen, C. (2008). Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control on California State Properties. California Department of Public Health.


References3

REFERENCES

  • Padmanabha, H., Soto, E., Mosquera, M., Lord, C. C., & Lounibos, L. P. (2010). Ecological Links Between Water Storage Behaviours and Aedes aegypti Production: Implications for Dengue Vector Control in Variable Climates. Eco Health, 7, 78-90.

  • PAHO. (2007). TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. HEALTH IN THE AMERICAS, 2, 662-664.

  • ParlimentofTrinidadndTobago. (2011). The Ministry of Health and its Management of Vector borne diseases. Port of Spain: Government of Trinidad And Tobago.

  • San Martin, J. L., Brathwaite, O., Zambrano, B., Solorzana, J. O., Bouckenooghe, A., Dayan, G. H., et al. (2010). The Epidemiology of Dengue in the Americas Over the Last Three Decades: A Worrisome Review. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg , 128-135.

  • Shultis, E. B. (2009). Bromeliads as a Breeding Site for the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti. Brown University, Natural and Cultural Ecology, Cairns.


References4

REFERENCES

  • TheGovernmentOfTrinidadAndTobago. (2009, December 31). Laws ofTrinidadAnd Tobago. Municipal Corporations Act . Port Of Spain, Trinidad And Tobago: The Parliment of Trinidad and Tobago.

  • TheStateofQueensland. (2009). Dengue Fever.

  • Unicef. (2003). At a glance Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved July 1st, 2012, from Unicef: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/trinidad_tobago_statistics.html

  • WorldHealthOrganization(2011). Dengue Bulletin. New Dehli: World Health Organization.

  • Wyngaarden, J. B., & Smith, L. H. (1982). Cecil Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA, United States of America: W. B. Saunders Company, 1671-1691.


Further reading

FURTHER READING

  • Angel, B., & Joshi, V. (2008). Distribution and sedengue viruses in Aedes mosquito in arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, Indiaasonality of vertically transmitted. J. Vector Bourne Dis, 45, 56-59.

  • Halstead, S. B. (2008). Dengue Tropical Medicine: Science and Practice — Vol. 5. (G. Pasvol, & S. L. Hoffman, Eds.) London, United Kingdom: Imperial College Press.

  • Harris, E., Perez, L., Phares, C. R., Perez, M. A., Idiaquez, W., Rocha, J., et al. (2003). Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua. Emerging Infectious Disease, 9 (8), 1003-1006.

  • Hopp, M. J., & Foley, J. A. (2003). Worldwide fluctuations in dengue fever cases related to climate variability. Climate Research , 85-94.

  • Kouri, G., & Guzman, M. G. (2003). Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas lessons and challenges. Journal of Clinical Virology , 1-13.


Further reading1

FURTHER READING

  • Lambrechts, L., Scott, T. W., & Gubler, D. J. (2010). Consequences of the expanding global distribution of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus tranamission. PloSNeglTropDis, 4 (5), e646.

  • Liebman, K. A., Stoddard, S. T., Morrison, A. C., Rocha, C., Minnick, S., Sihuinsha, M., et al. (2012). Spatial Dimensions of Dengue Virus Transmission across Interepidemic and Epidemic Periods in Iquitos, Peru (1999–2003). PLos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6 (2), e1472.

  • PanAmericanHealthOrganisation. (1994). Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in the Americas:Guidelines for the Prevention and Control. Washington, DC, United States of America: PAHO Scientific Publication.

  • Shepard, D. S., Coudeville, L., Halasa, Y. A., Zambrano, B., & Dayan, G. H. (2011). Economic Impact of Dengue Illness in the Americas. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84 (2), 200-207.

  • Strobel, M., Muller, P., Lamaury, I., & Rouet, F. (2001). Dengue fever: A Harmful Disease in Patients with Thrombocytopenia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 33 (4), 580-581.


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