Europe at 1600
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Europe at 1600. Europe 1350-1450. 1337- 1453: The Hundred Years War between England and France Tremendous destruction Led to strong national cohesion in England and France 1347-1666: The Plague 1/3 Europe’s population died Continued intermittently until 1666.

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Europe at 1600

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Europe at 1600

Europe at 1600


Europe 1350 1450

Europe 1350-1450

  • 1337- 1453: The Hundred Years War between England and France

    • Tremendous destruction

    • Led to strong national cohesion in England and France

  • 1347-1666: The Plague

    • 1/3 Europe’s population died

    • Continued intermittently until 1666

Clovis points used for spears


Renaissance 1400 1600

Renaissance (1400-1600)

  • Scientific and mathematical approach to world

  • Belief in human abilities to understand and explore

  • Developed compass, astrolabe, and shipping technologies

  • 1492: Spanish unification and expulsion of Moors

Clovis points used for spears


Reformation and creation of protestantism

Reformation and Creation of Protestantism

  • 1517: Martin Luther posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenberg

  • Reformation split Christian church: Roman Catholic, Lutherans, Calvinists

    • Catholics believed in value of scriptures, tradition, hierarchy, faith, and good works

    • Lutherans believed in value of scripture and faith

    • Calvinists believed in value of scripture, faith, strict community rules and predestination

Clovis points used for spears


England during reformation

England during Reformation

  • Henry VIII separated Church of England from Rome, but Church of England retained most characteristics of Roman Catholicism

  • Edward VI, reshaped C of E to become truly Protestant

  • Mary I, returned country to Catholicism; oppressed Protestants

  • Elizabeth returned country to Protestantism and toleration

  • England: Calvinists became Separatists (fringe group) and Puritans (sizeable minority)


European religious wars

European Religious Wars

  • 1520s-1555: German wars of religion ended with legalizing Lutheranism

  • 1570s-1580s: French Wars of Religion ended with some toleration of Calvinists

  • 1618-1648: German “Thirty Years War” killed 1/3 of German population, ended with legalization of Calvinism

  • 1640s: English Civil War (Puritans v. Catholic Charles I)

St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572


Spain during reformation

Spain During Reformation

  • 1492: Unification of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella

  • Catholicism became national symbol in battle against Moors and in unifying provinces

  • Spanish Inquisition forced non-Christians to convert or leave Spain

  • Philip II (1555-1598): extremely devout Catholic, challenged England and worked to safeguard Catholicism throughout empire

Defeat of the Spanish Armada


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • By 1492, few European nations had formed into strong centralized nations: England, France, Spain

  • Warfare between European nations helped develop armor, guns, and the military use of horses

  • Warfare between European nations, and development of capitalism, required a rule of law and formal government in European cultures

  • African nations existed, but did not fight each other as intensely as European nations did

  • European technology enabled Europeans to explore and to subjugate others

  • By the early 1600s, religious conflicts were deadly, polarizing, and fanatical: death, escape or conversion were often the only options

Puritan Family


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