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Cypress PSoC 可配置混合信号片上系统 简介. Luo Sai (keith @ BBS) 科大 11 系博 2005.3.27. Agenda. 嵌入式系统简介 PSoC 可配置混合信号片上系统 开发环境和开发流程 回顾 & 展望. 感性认识: What’s PSoC. What’s PSoC ? PSoC = Programmable System-on-Chip 可配置(混合信号)片上系统 是 Cypress 生产的一种面向嵌入式应用的芯片 用单片就可以构成一个系统,即 SoC(System on Chip)

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cypress psoc

Cypress PSoC 可配置混合信号片上系统简介

Luo Sai

(keith @ BBS)

科大11系博

2005.3.27

agenda
Agenda
  • 嵌入式系统简介
  • PSoC 可配置混合信号片上系统
  • 开发环境和开发流程
  • 回顾 & 展望
what s psoc
感性认识:What’s PSoC
  • What’s PSoC ?
  • PSoC = Programmable System-on-Chip 可配置(混合信号)片上系统
  • 是Cypress生产的一种面向嵌入式应用的芯片
  • 用单片就可以构成一个系统,即SoC(System on Chip)
  • 低成本(几个$),用于替代C51等8位机系统
  • PSoC的特点
  • 混合信号处理
  • 可配置的互连通路
  • 运行时动态配置
  • 软/硬件设计方法
slide5
嵌入式系统 简介
  • 嵌入式系统
  • 执行专用功能
  • 并被内部计算机控制的设备或者系统
  • 为什么叫“嵌入”?
  • 早期:专用的大型设备和机房
  • 70年代:出现微处理器和微型计算机,小、价廉、可靠
  • 其数值计算能力和智能化水平引起控制专业人士注意,被电气加固和机械加固,并配以外围接口,“嵌入”到控制系统中。
slide6
比较(追求的目标不同)
  • 通用计算机系统
    • 高速:8086286386…P4
    • 海量存储:640KB预言
    • 易用性:Windows…
  • 嵌入式系统
    • “嵌入”(体积小):如买学生票的那个纸片
    • 智能化控制:51、PIC、68k等指令集
    • 高可靠性:看门狗、一些编程技术
    • 低功耗:手机的待机时间
    • 安全:如一卡通
    • ……
slide7
嵌入式系统的两个基本特征
  • 首先,是专用的,解决现实世界的真实问题
    • 大自然是模拟的连续的,必须要能够处理模拟信号
  • 其次,是智能的,带一定的计算能力
    • 计算能力依靠离散的数字电路完成

CPU

slide8
PSoC的单芯片解决方案:
  • PSoC=M8C CPU核+模拟阵列+数字阵列+其它
  • 数字阵列+M8C:数值计算和通信
  • 模拟阵列:处理模拟信号
  • PSoC的设计如同搭积木般,将不同功能的模块安放到不同的位置上,并用线连接起来
  • 低成本
slide9
更低的成本:一个报警器的例子

Traditional Solution

Cypress Solution

PSoC BOM =$4.80

System BOM =$6.07

slide10
设计过程
  • IDE工具:PSoC Designer,图形界面(GUI)
  • 硬件设计方法
    • 在IDE中配置数字块和模拟块,并设置互联通道
    • IDE自动生成硬件的初始化代码,以及所配置功能的编程库
  • 软件设计方法
    • C语言,以及汇编
    • 进入main()之前,系统自动配置并初始化硬件
    • C程序可使用前面生成的编程库
  • 特点
    • 软硬件都在同一个环境中完成设计
    • 硬件可以动态改变(这些代码也是自动生成的)
slide11
PSoC
  • 可配置混合信号片上系统
slide12
PSoC = Programmable System-on-Chip
    • PSoC is a configurable mixed signal array with an on board controller.
    • Create your customized chip.

User Defines:

WhatFunctions Appear

WhenThey Appear

HowThey Interconnect

example of what functions appear
Example of “What Functions Appear”
  • PSoC can be defined to meet customer requirements with Countless configuration possibilities
  • Both of these devices are made from the same chip!

Device 1

Device 2

  • One 16-Bit Counter
  • One 8-Bit PWM
  • One Half-Duplex UART
  • One SPI Master
  • One 12-Bit Incremental A/D
  • One Low-Pass Filter
  • One 8-Bit D/A
  • Two Instrumentation Amplifiers
  • One 8-Bit Counter
  • One 16-Bit Timer
  • One Full-Duplex UART w/Baud Rate Generator
  • One SPI Slave (Full Duplex)
  • One 4-Input 8-Bit Delta-Sigma A/D
  • One 6-Bit D/A
  • One 8-Bit D/A
  • Two Low-Pass Filters
when functions appear in application reuse of resources
“When Functions Appear”In-Application Reuse of Resources
  • Dynamic Reconfiguration allows multiple function sets to operate on the SAME CHIP at DIFFERENT TIMES in the SAME APPLICATION
  • Example:
  • 23 Hours 59 minutes per day
    • Accepts Money
    • Distributes Beverages
  • A few seconds each night
    • Dynamically reconfigures into a 300 baud Modem
    • Transmits coin, beverage and maintenance status to central office
  • Benefits
    • Only cost delta is phone interface
    • Increased machine profitability
slide15

How They Interconnect

  • Define connections between pins and function blocks
  • Define connections between function blocks
  • Define clock paths
  • Change connections dynamically too!
digital psoc blocks
Digital PSoC Blocks
  • Eight 8-bit Digital PSoC Blocks Available
  • Two Types:
    • Basic (4)
    • Communications (4)
  • - Programmed at the
  • Functional Level
  • - Not Programmed at the
  • Gate Level
analog psoc blocks
Analog PSoC Blocks
  • Twelve Analog PSoC Blocks Available
  • Three Types:
    • Continuous Time (4)
    • Switch Capacitor C (4)
    • Switch Capacitor D (4)

Continuous Time

Switched Capacitor D

Switched Capacitor C

user modules
User Modules
  • Pre-configured and Pre-characterized Digital
  • and Analog PSoC Blocks
  • Analogous to On-chip Peripherals
    • Timer- Counters – PWM’s
    • UART – SPI
    • A/D –DAC’s - SAR
  • Defines the Register Bits for Initial Configuration
  • Selected via Double Click in IDE
  • User Modules Include
    • Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs)
    • Interrupt Service Routines (ISRs)
    • Specific UM Data Sheets
digital user modules
Digital User Modules
  • 8, 16, 24, 32-bit Timer
  • 8, 16, 24, 32-bit Counter
  • 8, 16-bit PWM
  • 8, 16-bit Dead Band Generator
    • (2 Phase Underlapped Clock)
  • Pseudo Random Source (PRS)
  • Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Generator
  • I2C Master
  • I2C Slave
  • SPI Master
  • SPI Slave
  • Full Duplex UART
  • IrDA receiver and transmitter
analog user modules
Analog User Modules
  • A/D Converters
    • 8-bit Successive Approximation
    • 8-bit Delta Sigma
    • 11-bit Delta Sigma
    • 12-bit Incremental
    • 7-13 bit Variable Incremental
    • Dual input 7-13 bit Variable Incremental
    • Tri input 7-13 bit Variable Incremental
  • D/A Converters
    • 6, 8, and 9-bit
    • 6 and 8 bit multiplying
  • Filters
    • 2-pole Low-pass filter
    • 2-pole Band-pass filter
  • Amplifiers
    • Programmable Gain Amplifier
    • Instrumentation Amplifier
    • Inverting Amplifier
  • Programmable Threshold Comparator
  • DTMF Dialer
software user modules
Software User Modules
  • I2C Master
  • EEPROM
  • LCD – Interface for Hitachi HD44780 controller
slide23
集成开发环境
  • (PSoC Designer)
  • 和开发流程
integrated development environment
Integrated Development Environment
  • Device Editor
  • Application Editor
  • C Compiler
  • Assembler
  • Librarian
  • Debugger
psoc design flow
PSoC Design Flow
  • Determine system requirements
  • User Modules
    • Choose User Modules
    • Place User Modules
    • Set global and User Module parameters
  • Define the pin-out/interconnect for the device
  • Generate the application
  • Review generated code
  • Demonstrate working configuration
requirements implementation
Requirements & Implementation

—— Example ——

Pup

需求:闪动2个LED灯,2Hz,duty cycle分别是40%和20%

PSoC

16-bit PWM

÷ 65535

P2[0]

(1.4Hz)

(94kHz)

(1.5MHz)

24MHz

÷16

÷16

VC1

VC2

16-bit PWM

÷ 65535

P2[1]

(1.4Hz)

psoc designer device editor selection mode
PSoC Designer Device Editor – Selection Mode
  • Selecting User Modules
      • View Lists of User Modules in catalog
      • View datasheet for each user module
      • Select user modules and include in current project
      • View a running total of available and consumed resources

选择的功能模块

可用的硬件资源

功能框图

该功能模块的手册

psoc designer device editor combined place pinout view
PSoC DesignerDevice Editor – Combined Place & Pinout View
  • Placing User Modules
      • View Block architecture with combined UM & port views
      • Generates routed block to block schematic
      • Routed global I/O connection schematic
      • Step through potential UM placement options
      • Select desired placement option for UM
      • Select UM and resource interconnections
      • Select/configure UM and global device resources
      • Define clocking for UMs
configure global resources
Configure Global Resources

CPU_Clock: 24MHz

32K_Select: Internal

PLL_MODE: Disable

VC1 = SysClk/N: N=16

……

configure user modules
Configure User Modules
  • PWM16_1: We want to generate a 1/5 duty cycle
      • Set Clock to VC2 (94kHz)
      • Set Enable
      • Set Period to 65535 (1.4Hz)
      • Set PulseWidth to 13107
      • ……
interconnect blocks to resources
Interconnect Blocks to Resources
  • Route PWM16_1 to pin:
    • Connect PWM16_1 output to Row_0_Output_0
    • Connect Row_0_Output_0 to GlobalOutEven_0

Left Click

Left Click

define the pin out
Define the Pin-out

Route PWM16_2 output to pin

time to create application code
Time to Create Application Code

按下这个按钮

生成这些代码

所有的API和ISR都可修改

对比WinCE的生成(Platform Builder)和Linux的生成(make menuconfig):

PSoC  配置/控制硬件的代码

WinCE/Linux  纯软件(OS)

psoc designer application editor
PSoC DesignerApplication Editor
  • For Users to Write Code
  • For Users to Assemble/Compile Code
  • View and edit individual source files
  • Set and remove bookmarks (Editing tool)
  • Assemble/compile individual files
  • Build entire project including assemble/compile* all files in project
  • Source line error pointer

*The C compiler needs to be enabled for use.

psoc designer c compiler
PSoC Designer C Compiler
  • The CY3202-C compiler.
  • Features Include:
      • ANSI C Compiler
      • Supports Inline Assembly and can Interface with Assembly Modules
      • Integrated code compressor
      • Modern Stack-Based Architecture
      • 7 Basic Data Types Including IEEE 32-Bit Floating Point
      • Assembler and Linker
      • Math and String Libraries
      • C Interrupt Service Routines
      • Librarian
  • C Interrupts are Supported
  • #pragma interrupt_handler <name> *
slide39
回顾
  • PSoC硬件组成
  • M8C 8位CPU
  • 数字阵列
  • 模拟阵列
  • 其他外围
  • 设计方法
  • 在PSoC Designer中选择并配置用户功能模块
  • 设置互联和引脚
  • 系统生成
  • 用C或汇编编写其他代码
slide40
思想的魅力
  • 组成方式——功能级可配置的数字/模拟阵列
  • 以数值计算的方式去解决模拟世界中的问题
  • PSoC同时拥有数/模阵列,单片就可以构成一个系统
    • MCU也有模拟部分,但其功能固定,不使用时成为摆设。PSoC总有一种功能会让你用到,利用率高,因而价格低。
  • 动态可变的系统构成
  • 硬件适应任务:任务不同,则硬件也不同。
  • 设计方法
  • 在同一环境内同时完成硬件和软件的开发
  • 并自动生成相关代码
slide41
嵌入式系统展望
  • 廉价
  • 将更多的数/模功能集成到单片上,如PSoC
  • 要仔细权衡好成本与功能的矛盾
  • 高性能
  • 成本已不太重要,可以接受多片系统的价格
  • 多片,因此数字/模拟电路可独立发展
  • 如DSP、高速运放、高精度ADC
  • 二者的折衷——现在是一个空白
  • PSoC 8位机,性能太弱,应用受限
  • 能否再设计出一种16/32位的类PSoC系统?应用将会更加广泛。
slide42
谢谢!
  • 详情参考Cypress网站的On-line Training
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