Simulation of an inherently safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source
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Simulation of an inherently-safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source. Stellenbosch University NRF - primary funder Presented by Karl Loubser Supervised by Mr RT Dobson. Energy Postgraduate Conference 2013. Overview. Background Objectives Theoretical model

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Simulation of an inherently safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source

Simulation of an inherently-safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source

Stellenbosch University

NRF - primary funder

Presented by

Karl Loubser

Supervised by

Mr RT Dobson

Energy Postgraduate Conference 2013


Simulation of an inherently safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source

Overview

  • Background

  • Objectives

  • Theoretical model

  • Experimental Setup – Primary loop

  • Experimental Setup – Secondary loop

  • Results – Convective mixing

  • Results – Bubble trouble

  • Conclusion


Simulation of an inherently safe system for a nuclear reactor energy source

Background

  • Importance of safety

  • Inherently safe

    • Containment layers x4

    • Natural circulation benefits

  • System

    • Primary loop

    • Secondary loop

    • Encasement

    • Air-cooled Natural circulating emergency condenser

    • Concrete shell natural cooling

4

3

2

1


Objectives

Objectives

  • Develop theoretical model with computer simulation of primary loop

  • Design and build experimental model of primary and secondary loops

  • Validated theoretical model using experiment

  • Derive empirical model of secondary loop

  • Recommendations

?


Theoretical model

Theoretical model

  • Fully explicit transient simulation

  • Developed and written in Fortran

  • 1-D, homogeneous flow model

  • Boussinesqapproximation

  • Equations derived from mass, momentum and energy conservation laws

  • Dimensions equivalent to experiment


Experimental setup

Primary Loop

Experimental Setup

  • Water working fluid

  • Total height 5 m

  • Max temp. 120˚C

  • 12 Thermocouples

  • Full length windows

  • Pressuriser connection

  • Orifice flow meter [10Hz]

  • Reactor [9 kW]

  • Riser [3m]

4

3

2

1


Experimental setup1

Secondary loop

Experimental Setup

  • Methanol working fluid

  • Compact

  • 2 separate loops

  • Condenser-water cooled

  • Constant head water supply

  • Condensate return

  • Remove 7.2 kW each (ΔT=95˚C)


Results

Convective mixing

Results

  • Single directional flow

  • Large vs. small diameter

  • Experimental plumes

  • Mixing function by volume

  • Results

    • Experiment

    • Without

    • With

  • Importance of

  • correlation

Test results

Without convective mixing

With convective mixing


Results1

Bubble trouble

Results

  • Sub-cooled boiling

  • Nucleation points

  • Pulsations

  • Geysering

  • Heat-pipe mode

  • Return flow

  • Orifice restriction

Boiling Begins

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • 1D theory positives/negatives

  • Experimental validation and observations

  • Fluctuating flow rates effects

  • Natural circulation flow rate variables

  • Heat-pipe performance

  • Future recommendations

  • Thanks


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