Lecture 11

Lecture 11 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Learning Objectives. Define:MycorrhizaeGametangiaZygosporangiumAsciAscocarpsGive examples:From each phylumContrast:Ascospores vs. conidia. Phylum Chytridiomycota. Mostly aquaticOriginally thought to be protistsThey have flagellated cellsNow thought to be fungiMolecular evidenceAbsorptive nutritionChitinous cell walls.

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Lecture 11

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1. Lecture 11 Biology 1108 Chapter 31: Fungi

2. Learning Objectives Define: Mycorrhizae Gametangia Zygosporangium Asci Ascocarps Give examples: From each phylum Contrast: Ascospores vs. conidia

3. Phylum Chytridiomycota Mostly aquatic Originally thought to be protists They have flagellated cells Now thought to be fungi Molecular evidence Absorptive nutrition Chitinous cell walls

4. Chytridiomycota Note branching hyphae Remember: these are the only fungi w/flagellated cells (not shown here)

5. Phylum Zygomycota The “zygote fungi” Some form mycorrhizae in plant roots Black bread mold Rhizopus is example

6. Potential Test Question Label EVERYTHING Heterokaryotic, haploid, diploid stages Sporangia Spores Etc., etc.

7. Rhizopus Life Cycle Reproduces sexually if food limited Requires opposite mating types Haploid spores Genetically diverse (different from either parent) Sexually produced Asexually produced

8. Zygosporangia Can remain “dormant” for long periods Resist freezing & drying

9. Sporangia Pilobolus can actually “aim” their sporangia Grows in dung Shoots up to 2 m!

10. Phylum Ascomycota The sac fungi Produce eight sexual ascospores in saclike asci Asexual spores (conidia) produced on conidiophores From Greek “dust” Sexual stages are fruiting bodies, or ascocarps

11. Some Ascomycetes Morels Some yeasts Truffles

12. Phylum Basidiomycota The club fungi Named for the club-shaped “basidium”, Latin for little pedestal

13. Basidiomycete Life Cycle Asexual reproduction possible, but rare Note basidia

14. Shelf Fungi Shelf fungi are basidiomycetes Good at dissolving lignin (hard material in wood) Some harmful to trees Help forest recycle nutrients

15. Stinkhorn Fungus Also a basidiomycete Attracts flies w/ decaying meat odor Flies spread spores on feet

16. Mushrooms The basic grocery store mushroom is a basidiomycete Fairy rings

17. Review of Fungi This table focuses on differences What are shared characteristics? Cell wall? Spores?

18. Dueteromycetes Imperfect Fungi Cannot be easily classified, because no known sexual life stages When it’s discovered, it’s moved to the appropriate phylum Penicillium

19. 7th Inning Stretch

20. Non-Phylogenetic Groupings Molds Yeasts Lichens

21. Mold Molds have no phylogenetic basis Simply a rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus (of any phylum) Rhizopus is an example, but only in asexual stage Penicillium also a mold

22. Yeasts Single-celled fungi of aquatic or moist habitats, called yeast when reproducing asexually Some have asci, are Ascomycota Ex: Saccharomyces Some have basidia, are Basidiomycota Some are imperfect fungi

23. Lichens Often mistaken for mosses (which are plants)! Actually a symbiosis between fungi & algae Can be basidiomycete or ascomycete Each unique combination = a “species” (2500+)

24. Lichen Life Cycle Reproduce by small clusters of hyphae surrounding algae Called soredia Algae & fungi can reproduce independently

25. Lichen Ecology A mutualism? Sometimes fungus kills algae Lichens grow where neither algae nor fungi could Some lichen algae can exist independently Lichen fungi totally dependent upon relationship

26. Lichens Are Tough Passively absorb nutrients, water from rain, fog Can exist in harsh environments Arctic tundra (“reindeer moss” is actually a lichen!) Dry environments The bark of a tree! A rock! Release of acids important in soil formation

27. Air Pollution Only real enemy of lichens Passive uptake of nutrients from rain & fog makes them susceptible

28. Mycorrhizae Literally “fungus roots” Mutualism between plant & fungus Can be of any fungal phylum

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