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Lecture 10. Lecture 11. Air & Noise Pollution. The Atmosphere. thin , gaseous envelope of air around Earth we live at the bottom of this sea of air. The atmosphere is divided into the:. Troposphere. atmosphere’s inner layer contains most of Earth’s air

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lecture 11

Lecture 10

Lecture 11

Air & Noise Pollution

the atmosphere
The Atmosphere
  • thin, gaseous envelope of air around Earth
  • we live at the bottom of this sea of air
troposphere
Troposphere
  • atmosphere’s inner layer
  • contains most of Earth’s air
  • N2 ( 78% ), O2 ( 21% ), CO2 ( 0.04% )
  • weather occurs here
  • temperaturedrops with an increase in altitude
stratosphere
Stratosphere
  • layer above troposphere
  • temperature rises with altitude
  • our global sunscreen
stratosphere cont d
Stratospherecont’d
  • contains O3“good ozone”
  • ozone layer prevents99% of harmfulultraviolet radiation from reaching Earth’s surface
ozone in the troposphere pollutant
Ozone in the Troposphere(Pollutant)

Trace amounts of O3that form in the troposphere as a component of urban smog cause damage to:

• plants

• materials, e.g., rubber

• respiratory systems of humans & other animals

what is air pollution
What is Air Pollution?
  • one or more chemicals in high enough concentrations in the air to:

1) harmorganisms or materials

2) alter climate

  • these chemicals are called air pollutants.
sources of air pollution
Sources of Air Pollution
  • Natural events

(e.g., volcanic eruptions, dust storms)

2. Human activities

(e.g., emissions from cars and smoke stacks)

major air pollutants
Major Air Pollutants
  • Carbon Dioxide ( CO2)
  • linked to global warming

2. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

  • Linked to global warming, acid deposition

3. Nitrogen Oxides

  • Linked to global warming
major classes of air pollutants cont d
Major Classes of Air Pollutantscont’d

4. Volatile Organic Compounds

- e.g., methane, propane, benzene, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

  • found in paints and protective coatings
  • have long-term health risks including:
  • compromised immune system in infants
  • respiratory disorders
major classes of air pollutants cont d12
Major Classes of Air Pollutantscont’d

5. Suspended Particles

- e.g., solid particles (dust, asbestos, soot)

- e.g., liquid droplets (pesticides, sulfuric acid)

- linked to respiratory disorders

types of air pollutants
Types of Air Pollutants

Primary Pollutant

- chemical, that occurs in a harmful concentration, added directly to the air by natural events or human activities

e.g. sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide

types of air pollutants cont d
Types of Air Pollutantscont’d

Secondary Pollutant

- harmful chemical formed in atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with the normal air components or with other air pollutants

e.g. ozone, sulphur trioxide

urban air pollution
Urban Air Pollution

Smog

- originally a combination of smoke & fog

- now describes other mixtures in the atmosphere

urban air pollution cont d
Urban Air Pollutioncont’d

Industrial Smog

- consists mainly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid and a variety of suspendedsolid particles

- found in cities that burn large amounts of coal and heavy oil which contain sulfurimpurities

effects of climate topography on air pollution
Effects of Climate & Topography on Air Pollution
  • Areas with high average annual precipitation, help cleanse the air of pollutants.
  • Winds help sweep pollutants away and bring in fresh air.
  • Hills & mountainsreduce the flow of air in valleys below and allow pollutant levels to build up at ground level.
effects of climate topography on air pollution cont d
Effects of Climate & Topography on Air Pollutioncont’d
  • Buildings in cities slow wind speed & reduce dilution and removal of pollutants.
  • The process of hot air rising and cold air sinking causing continual mixing of air, helps keep pollutants from reaching dangerous levels near the ground.
temperature inversion
Temperature Inversion
  • also called thermal inversion
  • a layer of warm air settles over a layer of cooler air that lies near the ground.
  • the warm air holds down the cool air and prevents pollutants from rising and scattering allowing them to build up to harmful levels
slide22

Smoke rising in Lochcarron, Scotland is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air – thermal inversion

acid deposition
Acid Deposition
  • the falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface
  • commonly known as acid rain
acid rain
Acid Rain
  • refers only to wetdeposition of droplets of acids and acid-forming compounds
  • natural precipitation is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-5.6)
  • acid rain can have a pH of 4.3 or 3 (as acidic as vinegar)
harmful effects of acid deposition
Harmful Effects of Acid Deposition
  • contributes to human respiratory diseases
  • damages foliage and weaken trees
  • contaminate fish
  • damages statues, buildings, metals, & car finishes
  • releases aluminium ions which damage tree roots
greenhouse effect
Greenhouse Effect
  • natural effect that traps heat in the troposphere
  • some of the heat flowing back toward space from Earth’s surface is absorbed, by H2O vapour, CO2, O3 and other gases, then radiated back toward Earth’s surface
greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases
  • gases in the troposphere that cause the greenhouse effect
  • include:

carbon dioxide

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

ozone

methane

water vapour

nitrous oxide

greenhouse gases cont d
Greenhouse Gasescont‘d
  • the 2 predominant greenhouse gases are:
        • water vapour
        • carbon dioxide
  • if the atmospheric concentrations of these gases increase, the average temperature of the troposphere will gradually rise
global warming
GlobalWarming
  • warming of atmosphere due to increases in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases primarily as a result of human activities, mainly:

burning of fossil fuels

use of CFCs

agriculture

deforestation

global warming cont d
Global Warmingcont’d

In recent decades certain greenhouse gases have increased in concentration:

carbon dioxide

methane

nitrous oxide

CFCs

CO2 contributes to ~ 55% of global warming.

possible impacts of global warming on caribbean states
Possible Impacts of Global Warming on Caribbean States
  • disastrous for ecosystems e.g. coral reefs (coral bleaching)
  • alter climatic conditions faster than some species could adapt
  • shift food-growing areas
  • rise in sea levels due to melting of icecaps and glaciers may flood coastal settlements
slide34

Meltwater from Ice Sheet in Greenland flowing into ocean

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090612092741.htm

possible impacts of global warming on caribbean states cont d
Possible Impacts of Global Warming on Caribbean Statescont’d
  • more frequent and fiercehurricanes
  • disastrous for economic and social systems
ozone layer
Ozone Layer
  • layer of gaseous ozone that protects life on Earth by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun
  • being depleted by CFCs, halons and other chemicals
slide37
CFCs
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • used in air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol spray cans, cleaners for electronic parts, hospital sterilants, fumigants, plastic foam
  • ozone eaters
impact of ozone depletion
Impact of Ozone Depletion
  • increased cases of cancer & cataracts
  • suppression of human immune system
  • lowers crop yield
  • degradation of materials
  • reduction in phytoplankton
noise pollution
Noise Pollution

- any unwanted, disturbing or harmfulsound that impairs or interferes with hearing, causes stress, hampers concentration and work efficiency or causes accidents

impact of noise pollution
Impact of Noise Pollution
  • permanent hearing loss
  • hypertension
  • insomnia
  • irritability
  • migraine headaches
  • muscle tension
  • gastric (stress) ulcers
  • psychological disorders (eg, increased aggression)
solutions to air noise pollution
SolutionstoAir&NoisePollution
  • enforceair & noise pollution laws
  • use emission control devices
  • ban or limit smoking to well-ventilated areas
  • tax each unit of pollution produced
  • use office machines in well-ventilated areas
  • shift to less polluting energy sources
  • increase intake of outdoor air
  • car exhaust inspections
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