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Swine Production. Fall, 2009 ANSC 4401 John J. McGlone, PhD Professor. In what ways are pigs in the news?. Swine Influenza. July, 2009. How is this H1N1 different?. From Time Magazine, July 09. Why the concern now?. From Time Magazine, July 09. Is this our image?.

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Swine Production

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Swine production

Swine Production

Fall, 2009

ANSC 4401

John J. McGlone, PhD


In what ways are pigs in the news

In what ways are pigs in the news?

Swine influenza

Swine Influenza

July, 2009

How is this h1n1 different

How is this H1N1 different?

From Time Magazine, July 09

Why the concern now

Why the concern now?

From Time Magazine, July 09

Is this our image

Is this our image?

Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food

By Bryan Walsh Friday, Aug. 21, 2009

“Somewhere in Iowa, a pig is being raised in a confined pen, packed in so tightly with other swine that their curly tails have been chopped off so they won't bite one another. To prevent him from getting sick in such close quarters, he is dosed with antibiotics. The waste produced by the pig and his thousands of pen mates on the factory farm where they live goes into manure lagoons that blanket neighboring communities with air pollution and a stomach-churning stench….”


How did we get here

How did we get here?

Swine production

How did get from there to here?

History of the pig domestication

History of the PigDomestication

  • 40 million years ago:

    Giant Pig

  • Branches into ruminants & Suidae

  • 9000+ years ago

  • Indonesia (or Europe)

History of the pig

History of the pig

Place in the animal kingdom:

Phylum: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla

Sub-order: Suina

(hippos & peccaries)

Family: Suidae

(pigs; babyrousa, warthog, etc.)

Genus: Sus

(bearded pig, pigmy hog, warty hog, etc.)

Species: scrofa

European wild boar

European Wild Boar

German swine forest or wild housing hutewald

German “Swine Forest”or “Wild Housing” Hutewald

European wild boar1

European Wild Boar

History of the pig1

History of the Pig

  • 9000+ years ago; Humans in caves/huts with pigs nearby

  • by 3,000-4,000 BC Persian*, Egyptian, Chinese & desert civilizations all ate pork & pigs were an important part of their culture

  • Pig herds spread West and North in Eurasia

* Muhammad lived 570-632 AD

History of the pig2

History of the Pig

  • Jewish, Islamic and some Hindu sects stopped eating pork; reasons included

    • nomadic cultures not as suited to pigs as to cattle/sheep/camels

    • pigs ate waste products and were considered unhealthy

    • pork could contain parasites that made people sick

What is the image of pigs in today s world

What is the image of pigs in today’s world?

What was the industry image in Biblical times?

Pigs were critical in history

Pigs Were Critical in History

  • Ancient Persia

  • Ancient Egypt

  • Ancient Greece

  • Roman Empire

  • Celtic nations

  • Colonizing nations (Spain, UK, Dutch, etc.)

  • Today

Pigs in historical art

Pigs in Historical Art

  • Greek pig sculptures & drawing on a plate

  • circa 500 BC; Louvre, Paris

History of the pig3

History of the Pig

  • The Roman Empire improved pig breeding and spread pigs

  • Two types were developed:

    • Large, floppy ears, much lard

    • Smaller, erect ears, for meat

Iberian pigs from modern-day Spain

History of the pig4

History of the Pig

By the 1500s:

  • In the North, Celtic people bred large-bodied, well-muscled pigs

  • In Southern Europe, Iberians developed smaller-framed, lard-type pigs

  • All pigs of the day were dark colored

History of the pig5

History of the Pig

Sea-going explorers used live pigs (domestic and wild):

  • to eat along the way

  • to supply seedstock for new colonies

  • to hunt on a later visit

    Explorers used pork in the form of:

  • salt pork

  • cured pork

Usa phases of growth in pig s

USA Phases of Growth in Pig #s

  • Phase 1 -- The early settlers(colonial days)

  • Phase 2 -- 1776 to 1865(pigs move west)

  • Phase 3 -- 1865 to 1995(pigs with grain)

  • Phase 4 -- Now and futurea. Away from peopleb. Away from waterwaysc. Biosecurity concerns

Pig numbers

Pig Numbers

World meat situation

World Meat Situation

Pork is the #1 meat eaten in the world

  • Pork 106 million metric tons

  • Beef 65 million metric tons

  • Poultry 95 million metric tons

Consumers are spending more on meat over time

Consumers are spending more on meat over time

Meat production in 1969 2009 and projected for 2030

Meat Production in 1969, 2009 and Projected for 2030

* % change in 2009 compared with 1969

** FAO estimate from 2003

2003 & 2009 FAO reports



Pig meat production metric tonnes 2007

Pig meat production metric tonnes, 2007

Swine production

Value of Agricultural Products in the USA in 1997

Largest meat exporters millions of tonnes 2008

Largest Meat Exportersmillions of tonnes, 2008

Swine production

Who is exporting pork?

FAO 2009:


Usa import export of pork

USA Import-Export of Pork

USA exports are rising!

Usa grain producing areas

USA Grain Producing Areas

Usa pig numbers 2009 selected states march 1 2009 usda

USA Pig Numbers 2009(selected states) March 1, 2009 USDA

Usa pigs per litter march may 2009

USA Pigs per litter March-May, 2009

Swine production

The USA Breeding Herd is shrinking in numbers

…But herd productivity is increasing and more pork is being produced with fewer sows

Swine production

Corn prices were very high last year; they are lower now and we expect a large corn crop

… But price for pigs is still below break even by $20/pig or more

Break even

Swine production

Hog farms have lost money, on average, for the last 40 months and will do so for at least another 8 months (until summer of 2010)

Sows on large farms

Sows on large farms

  • In September, 2006, Smithfield bought PSF

  • Triumph Foods includes 5 or more producers


Regional pig numbers 300 000 sows 6 million pigs year growth was from 1990 2000

Regional Pig Numbers = 300,000 sows; 6 million pigs/year (growth was from 1990-2000)

Production technologies

Production Technologies

  • Cattle & Sheep are more often grazed

  • Pigs & Poultry are more intensified

Alternative technologies

Alternative Technologies

Modern farms

Modern Farms

Dramatic changes in global meat production could increase risk of diseases

Livestock producers should invest more in biosecurity and disease monitoring

17 September 2007, Rome - Global animal food production is undergoing a major transformation that could lead to a higher risk of disease transmission from animals to humans, FAO warned today.


Flow in modern pork production units

Flow in modern pork production units

Life cycle pork production

Life Cycle Pork Production

Production schedules

Production schedules

  • Based on a 20 or 21 week cycle

  • 20 groups of sows would be on a weekly schedule

  • Each week one group farrows another is weaned and another is bred

  • Shorter lactation length results in more litters per sow per year (up to a point)

What drives production

What drives production?

  • Lower the cost

  • Increase pigs per sow per year

    • Increase farrowing or conception rate

    • Increase litter size

  • Increase weight gain

  • Improve feed efficiency

  • Improve animal health

    • Morbidity

    • Mortality

The psf tx experience

The PSF-TX Experience

The mff laverne experience

The MFF-Laverne Experience

Benefits of pigs to the region

Benefits of Pigs to the Region

  • Kids and grand kids can stay here

  • Community prospers

  • Land values increase

  • Local grain and land have added value

  • Local multiplication of economic effect

  • Rural lifestyle can be protected

Change in pig industry

Change in pig industry

  • Virtually no small, family commercial farms

  • Show pigs are a different industry in the USA and this is especially strong in Texas

  • Pork is a commodity or in a niche

  • Little opportunity to start a commercial pig farm and be successful in the USA

  • Great opportunities to work for corporations

  • International opportunities abound in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia

Restructured usa pig industry

Restructured USA Pig Industry

  • About 50% of the pigs now come from very large farms, primarily corporations

  • The mid-sized farms are less competitive and therefore are exiting the industry

  • Society is concerned about:

    • The loss of the family farm

    • Pollution

    • Animal welfare

    • Food safety, etc.

  • The flip-side societal concern is: how will we feed 10 billion people?

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