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Jacob A. Riiswas a Danish immigrant. He became a newspaper reporter in New York City at the end of the 19th Century. Riis wanted to draw attention to the poverty & unhealthy living conditions in the city’s tenements. Here is an excerpt from Riis’s famous work, How the Other Half Lives. This book had a great effect on the reform movement of that era.
“Be a little careful, please! The hall is dark, and you might stumble over the children pitching pennies back there…A flight of stairs. You can feel your way if you cannot see it. Close (stuffy)? Yes!...All the fresh air that enters comes from the hall door that is forever slamming…The sinks are in the hallway, that all the tenants may have access---and all be poisoned alike by their summer stenches…In summer, when a thousand thirsty throats pant for a cooling drink in this block, (the pump) is worked in vain…Listen! That short, hacking cough, that tiny, helpless wail---what do they mean?...The child is dying of measles. With half a chance it might have lived, but it had none. That dark bedroom killed it.”
Who are “the other half”?____________________________________________________
Riis is a newspaper reporter. Do news reporters today still work to draw attention to problems in society? Explain your answer in 1 clear paragraph.
“We've got to start to make this world over.” (Thomas Edison, 1912)
Muckraking at its finest (McClure's Magazine: May 1903)
3) abuses of corporate power
B. growing cities magnified problems of poverty, disease, crime & corruption
C. influx of immigrants & rise of new managerial class upset traditional class alignments
D. massive depression (1893-1897) convinced many that equal opportunity was out of reach for many Americans
1. sought to apply principles of professions (medicine, law, business, teaching) to problems of society
2. strong faith in progress &the ability of educated people to overcome problems 3. rise in volunteer organizations organized to address issues (i.e. American Bar Association, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, National Municipal League)4. mainly urban in residence &orientation
B. Muckraking journalists attacked corruption in business & government…& scandal with a sense of moral outrage (“muckrakers” penned by Theodore Roosevelt)
1. Lincoln Steffens exposed political machines in The Shame of the Cities (1904)2. Ida Tarbell exposed John D. Rockefeller & Standard Oil Trust abuses(History of Standard Oil)3. Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1906) attacked the meat-packing industry
4. Jacob Riis:How The Other Half Lives (immigrant poor)
5. Ida B. Wells: Crisis (lynching of African-Americans)
C. Political reformers: many opposed to traditional party politics
D. Socialists: frustrated workers who promised to destroy capitalism. Led by Eugene Debs (who polled 900,000 votes for president in 1912), Socialists were rejected by most Progressives as too extreme in their goals & methods
A. Using the power of the presidency (a "bully pulpit") as no president since Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt loved to lead &to fight those he felt were not acting in America's best interests (TR = “Trustbuster” of monopolies)1. Coal Strike: when coal mine owners refused to deal with the union in a 1902 strike, T.R. summonsed them &the head of the mine workers to the White House & threatened to use army troops to keep the mines open. Owners backed down &T.R. was credited with ending the strike2. Northern Securities Case: T.R. used the Sherman Antitrust Act to attack a railroad monopoly. Supreme Court ordered the company to dissolve.3. added Departments of Labor &Commerce to the Cabinet 4. pushed through the Hepburn Act (1906), strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission(Meat Inspection Act 1906, in response to Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle)5. urged Congressional approval of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), which forbade impure foods &required labelling of ingredients of foods & drugs
B. Conservation reform added massive areas to the national forests (total of 190 million acres)
1. transferred forests to the U.S. Forest Service headed by Gifford Pinchot, who insisted that trees be planted as well as harvested2. withdrew millions of acres of public land from sale to protect resources 3. used public land sale revenues to build dams &canal systems
A. City government system changed to prevent boss or “political machine" rule
1. city commissions replaced mayors &city councils in some areas2. city managers (nonpolitical professional managers) were hired to run small cities
B. State level reform efforts championed by Gov. Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin
1. direct primary to give voters control over candidates2. competitive civil service &restrictions on lobbying3. many states passed workmen's compensation laws 4. election reforms to bring direct democracy to voters
a) initiative: allowed 5% of voters to "initiate" laws in state legislatures (“citizens propose laws”)b) referendum: in some states voters could then pass initiatives into laws (“citizens vote on proposed laws”)c) recall: by petition, voters could force an official to stand for reelection at any time (“citizens vote out elected officials”)
1. Progressive education: John Dewey led movement that focused on personal growth, not mastery of body of knowledge &learning through experience2. Charles Eliot of Harvard pioneered elective courses &new teaching techniques (such as seminars) to make university learning more meaningful3. women began attending colleges in large numbers…by 1920, 47% of total enrollment was female4. believing that more education would help bring an enlightened population, Progressives pushed enrollments to record levels (86% of children in schools by 1920) without seriously assessing how schools were doing
B. Law: judges opinions needed to be based on factual information, not just oral arguments &precedents
1. Muller v. Oregon (1908): limited women's working hours2. not all Progressive legal principles prevailed. In Lochner v. New York (1905), the Supreme Court overturned a New York law limiting bakers' working hours
C. Settlement houses: Jane Addams &others established group homes in city slums to aid poor urban residents
1. promoted public health reform in cities, chlorinating water & tightening sanitary regulations2. developed education &craft programs for residents3. created neighborhood health clinics & dispensaries
D. Racial anti-discrimination efforts for African-Americans
1. Booker T. Washington (Atlanta Compromise) argued for self-help& accommodation on the part of blacks to white society (…educational & economic equality first…)2. W.E.B. DuBois (Niagara Movement 1905) urged blacks to assert themselves & agitatefor political &economic rights. Formed NAACPto use legal means to end racial discrimination (…full political & social equality immediately…)
E. Women's rights
1. while the number of employed women stayed constant from 1900-1920 (20%), the type of work switched from domestic labor (servants, cooks, laundresses) to clerical work (clerks, typists, bookkeepers), factory work& professionals2. most women still held the lowest paying &least opportune jobs3. significant Progressive feminists called for greater reform:a) Charlotte Perkins Gilman attacked the male monopoly on opportunity & declared that domesticity was an obsolete value for American womenb) Margaret Sanger led the movement to provide birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancies among poor women c) Suffragists (“suffragettes”) urged that women be given the franchise, which came on the national level with the 19th Amendment (1919) = “women’s right to vote” (Susan B. Anthony & Alice Paul)
F. Child labor laws: most states passed minimum working age laws &prohibited children from working more than 10 hours per day, but enforcement was difficult to achieve
G. Temperance: Anti-Saloon League &Women's Christian Temperance Union (Carrie Nation = “hatchet woman”) fought alcoholism on the state level through blue laws & on the national level with the 18th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale& transportation of liquor (prohibition)
A. Republican successor William Howard Taft proved to be less progressive than Theodore Rooseveltin the areas of tariff reform & conservation
1. Payne-Aldrich Tariff (heralded by Taft as "the best tariff passed by the Republican Party") protected industries &kept consumer prices high2. a public land sale scandal in Alaska pitted Pinchot against Secretary of Interior Ballinger. Taft fired Pinchot
B. Theodore Roosevelt organized the National Progressive or "Bull Moose” Party after Progressive Republicans bolted the Taft-controlled Republican convention. Party platform included long list of Progressive demands
C. Democratic Party nominated Woodrow Wilson, the scholarly governor of New Jersey who called for moral revival &reform, including low tariffs, the breaking up of all monopolies & for the government to be an umpire in disputes between labor & business
D. Socialists nominated Eugene Debs, who called for public ownership of all natural resources &major industries
E. Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) won 40/48 states as Republicans split between William Howard Taft & Theodore Roosevelt.Height of Progressivism as Wilson, TR& Debs totaled 11 million votes to 3.5 million for Taft.
1. acted as bankers' banks &prevent "runs" on bank assets2. Federal Reserve notes issued a flexible new currency to the banking system
C. Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) to restrict monopolies& set up a Federal Trade Commission to stop unfair practices which may arise (replaces the “vague” Sherman Antitrust Act)
1. material progress of Americans weakened zeal of reformers2. myriad of Progressive goals were often confusing & contradictory3. opposition to Progressivism apparent as initiatives failed & courtstruck down Progressive legislation 4. government remained mainly under the influence of business &industry5. outbreak of World War I dampened enthusiasm of attempts to use governments to create “just societies” on Earth
B. Progressive accomplishments
1. “trust busting” forced “robber baron” industrialists to notice public opinion2. legislation gave federal & state governments the tools to protect consumers3. income tax helped build government revenues & redistribute wealth4. progressives successfully challenged traditional institutions & approaches to domestic problems
Around 1900, child labor was often used in American factories & farms. At the turn of the century, nearly 1 million children under the age of 15 were working for American industries. Another million worked on farms. This led to abuses & serious safety issues. About a decade later, people began to protest for better child labor laws.
What are the child labor laws in your state today? Depending on your age, are children limited to certain kinds of jobs? Are the hours they can work each week limited? Do you think these laws are good? Write a clear paragraph explaining your answer.
Problems: poor sanitation, crowded cities, unsafe work environments, government corruption (“Gilded Age”) & general lack of support for the common man.
“of the people, by the people” vs. the corruption of political machines
T. Roosevelt’s Square Deal (“Trustbuster”)
U.S. History 10/2 NotesGoal #7: The Progressive Era7.02: Analyze how different groups of Americansmade economic & political gains in the Progressive Period.
Populism = only the farmers in the West
Progressivism = industrial workers everywhere
Reformer Presidents Reforms
Theodore Roosevelt→ known as the “Trustbuster,” Roosevelt enforced the
(1901-09) Republican → Sherman Antitrust Act by breaking up monopolies.
Pure Food & Drug Act (FDA) → The Jungle
Hepburn Act (railroads)
William Howard Taft → continued trust-busting
(1909-13) Republican → 16th Amendment: income tax (promoted)
17th Amendment: direct election of Senators
Underwood Tariff Act (reduce tariffs)
Woodrow Wilson → 16th Amendment (ratified)
(1913-21) Democrat→ 17th Amendment (ratified)
Clayton Antitrust Act (Sherman upgrade)
Federal Trade Commission → Federal Reserve
Congress promoted 19th Amendment
16th Amendment: graduated income tax (as income $ rises, tax % rises…favors poor)
17th Amendment: direct election of senators (…instead of state legislatures)
18th Amendment: prohibition of alcohol (Carrie Nation: Women’s Christian Temperance Union)
19th Amendment: women’s suffrage
U.S. History 10/2 NotesGoal #7: The Progressive Era7.03: Evaluate the effects of racial segregationon different regions & segments of U.S. society.
Post-Civil War Restrictive LawsJim Crow: segregation of public services
black codes: laws that restricted freedmen’s rights
1) grandfather clause: helped illiterate whites vote but not blacks
2) literacy tests: if you could not pass, you could not vote
3) poll taxes
Ku Klux Klan (KKK): white supremacist secret society that used fear & intimidation to keep black people from realizing their equal rights (mostly Southern)
Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court case that rendered “separate but equal” decision (segregation = constitutional)
Booker T. Washington: promoted growth within African-American society separate from whites. Economic success should come before social & political (educational equality: self-help for African-Americans)
W.E.B. Dubois: promoted social & political growth from the best & brightest of the African-American community in white-dominated society (NAACP…full equality: politically, socially, economically & educationally)
Marcus Garvey: “Back to Africa” movement
U.S. History 10/2 NotesGoal #7: The Progressive Era7.04: Examine the impact of technological changeson economics, social & cultural life in the U.S.
The Industrial Revolution allowed for the mass production of consumer goods that had a profound effect on U.S. society & the economy. This movement in the U.S. allowed for growth so rapid that the U.S. became a world power almost overnight due to resources, innovation & entrepreneurial leadership. (industrialization, specialization & urbanization)
Thomas Alva Edisonlight bulb (amongst many others)
Alexander Graham Belltelephone (helped start AT&T)
Henry Fordassembly line (automobiles)
Isaac Singersewing machine
George Westinghouseelectrical transformer (home electricity)
Wilbur & Orville Wright Bros.airplane (not immediate)
Kitty Hawk, NC
Christopher Sholestypewriter (recordkeeping & communication)
Joseph Gliddenbarbed wire (cattle industry)
Samuel Morsetelegraph/telegram (Morse Code)
Margaret Sangerbirth control/contraception
Susan B. Anthony & Alice Paulwomen’s suffrage movement
The following graphs show the three largest cities in the United States at 2 different points in time: 1820 & 1900:
Which cities can be found in both graphs? Has anything changed about their relative order? Write 1-2 sentences to explain your answer.
Which city appears in 1820 but not in 1900? Which city appears in 1900 but not in 1820? Can you think of any reason for this? Write 2-3 sentences to explain your answer.
What other observations can you make based on these graphs? Write 2-3 sentences to explain your answer.