Characterizing exoplanets the challenge
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Characterizing Exoplanets: The Challenge. GSMT Potential. GSMT will detect & classify Jovian mass planets, from ‘roasters’ to ‘old, cold’ Jupiters located at ~ 5AU for stars at d < 10 pc Via photometry (R ~10) and low resolution spectroscopy (R ~200) Requires star suppression ~ 10 7

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Characterizing Exoplanets: The Challenge

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Characterizing exoplanets the challenge

Characterizing Exoplanets: The Challenge

Gsmt potential

GSMT Potential

  • GSMT will detect & classify Jovian mass planets, from ‘roasters’ to ‘old, cold’ Jupiters located at ~ 5AU for stars at d < 10 pc

    • Via photometry (R ~10) and low resolution spectroscopy (R ~200)

    • Requires star suppression ~ 107

  • Detection of lower mass planets is possible, but star suppression must exceed 108

    • Characterization via spectroscopy not possible

  • GSMT will detect ‘warm Jupiters’ around t < 10 Myr stars in nearby star-forming regions (75-150 pc)

  • Elt projects

    ELT Projects

    Eso owl 100 m concept

    ESO OWL 100-m Concept

    • 100m segmented primary

    • Spherical segments

    • NGS AO

    • Find exo-earths

    • Stellar populations to Virgo

    • Design studies underway

    • Major funding after ALMA

    Magellan 20 concept

    Magellan 20 Concept

    • 7x8.4m primary at f/0.7

    • Possible upgrade path to 20/20

    • General purpose telescope

      • wide FOV feeding MOS

      • NGS AO

      • MCAO

      • ExAO planet finder

    • Complete by 2014

    • Partners: Carnegie, Arizona, CfA, MIT, Michigan, Texas, Texas A & M

    20 20 concept

    20-20 Concept

    • 7x8.4m primary at f/0.7

    • 100-m baseline

    • Detection of exo-earths

    • Other high contrast scenes

    • Magellan 20 + other partners?

    Tmt reference design

    TMT Reference Design

    • 30-m segmented primary

    • f/1 Gregorian

    • 10’FOV, kilo-slit MOS

    • Deployable IFUs + imager

      • diffraction-limited

      • 0.05” pixel

    • R ~ 105 MIR spectrograph

    • ExAO coronagraph

    Tmt status

    TMT Status

    • Partnership formed

      • UC, Caltech, Canada, AURA

    • Reference design selected (Oct, 2004)

      • based on CELT, VLOT and NIO/GSMT concepts

    • Design and Development phase underway

      • $70M effort

      • Private funding committed (Moore Foundation)

      • Public funding authorized (Canada; CFI)

      • NSF funding (1/2 x $1M FY05; $2M FY06; ramp up in FY07)

    • Site evaluation underway

    • Conceptual Design Review: Spring, 2006

    • Cost review: Fall, 2006

    Tmt first light instruments

    TMT First Light Instruments

    Instrumentation priorities; requirements set by TMT SAC

    • Includes one representative from the community; 2 planned

  • NFIRAOS - facility AO system delivering narrow-field AO images (1-2.5 mm; 5mm goal)

    • 7 LGS constellation; deliver Strehl 0.7 images at K over 10”

      • Upgrade to 30” FOV by adding DMs

    • Feeds IRIS; NIRES; WIRC (see below)

  • IRIS - IFU spectrograph/imager (1-2.5 mm; 5mm goal)

  • MIRES - R ~ 105 spectrograph (5-30 mm)

  • WFOS - kiloslit wide-field optical spectrograph

  • Lenslet optics

    Fold Mirror

    & Lenslet Array


    UCLA led


    Lenslet Optics


    AO Focus







    Collimator Mirrors (TMA)


    Fold Mirror


    Camera Mirrors (TMA)

    Deconstructing forming galaxies at 7 mas resolution

    1 2 3 4

    Deconstructing Forming Galaxies at 7 mas resolution

    Focal Plane Feed to Spectrograph Detector







    Mires uh noao ucd texas

    MIRES (UH; NOAO; UCD; Texas)

    Echelon is ~1 m long

    Planet formation environments

    0.1 AU

    ~1000 K

    1 AU

    ~200 K

    10 AU

    ~50 K

    H2 UV, NIR, MIR

    H2O ro-vib

    OH Dv=1

    CO Dv=1

    CO Dv=2

    Planet Formation Environments

    Studying gas in disks:


    Study gas dissipation timescale: constrains pathways for

    giant planet formation, terrestrial planet architectures

    Tmt gen ii instruments

    TMT Gen II Instruments

    • HROS - R ~70,000 optical spectrograph

    • IRMOS - deployable IFU IR spectrograph

    • WIRC - wide-field IR camera (MCAO)

    • NIRES - near-IR Echelle (R ~ 70,000)

    • PFI - ExAO imager (106 - 107 contrast)

    Metal poor stars with hros

    Metal-poor Stars with HROS

    HROS spectra of

    metal-poor stars

    • The nucleosynthetic “fingerprints” of Pop III stars, and the rare-earth elements produced in SN explosions are best observed at visible wavelengths.

    • R>30,000 required for reliable measurements of abundances even for very metal-poor stars.

    • Need TMT to be able to push out to other galaxies in the Local Group.

    U colorado hros concept

    U Colorado HROS Concept

    Pfi science missions

    PFI Science Missions

    Tmt operations model

    TMT Operations Model

    • Plan for queue and classical operation

    • Invest in end-to-end system that envisions

      • Data reduction by PI and teams

      • Extensive post-proprietary period mining of archives populated by well characterized data

    • Community participation via

      • Classical or queue PI-mode observing

      • Planning and executing Legacy surveys

    • Community input needed

      • Desired operations modes

      • Mechanism for carrying out precursor/planning observations

    Site evaluation

    Site Evaluation

    Gsmt site evaluation

    GSMT Site Evaluation

    • NIO is involved in testing multiple sites:

      • Las Campanas

      • Three Chilean Sites

      • Mauna Kea ELT site

      • San Pedro Martir

    • Status:

      • Remote sensing studies (cloud cover; water vapor) nearly complete

        • MK / US / Chile comparison to finish in August

      • CFD modeling of sites: good progress on first three sites

      • Weather stations deployed on several mountains

      • Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS)

        • Measure turbulence profile above site

        • In combination with DIMM, quantify contribution of ground-layer

    Remote sensing survey of cloud cover and pwv

    Remote Sensing Survey of Cloud Cover and PWV

    • Survey uses meteorological satellite images

    • Long time baseline

    • Well-defined methodology provides:

      • Photometric, spectroscopic, unsuitable conditions based on cloud cover

      • Precipitable water vapor above the sites

    • Dispassionate comparison thus possible

    • Areas studied:

      • Northern Chile

      • SW USA-Mexico

      • Mauna Kea – Chile comparison

    Computational fluid dynamics

    Computational Fluid Dynamics

    • Characterize wind flow allowed pre-selection of sites

      • Wind intensity

      • Turbulence characteristics

      • Down-wind wakes

    • Characterization of all candidate sites now completed

    Weather station

    Weather Station

    Combining mass dimm results

    Combining MASS + DIMM Results

    Free atmosphere seeing steady at ~ 0.25” for 4 nights

    Advancing us elt efforts

    Advancing US ELT Efforts

    Advancing us elt efforts1

    Advancing US ELT Efforts

    • AURA goals:

      • Ensure availability of ELT(s) early in the JWST era

      • Ensure broad community access

      • Provide a community voice in shaping ELT designs

    Aura s approach

    AURA’s Approach

    • Goal:

      • Advance the design of TMT and GMT so that performance, cost, schedule and risk of differing approaches can be assessed

    • Provide $17.5M for TMT partnership

      • NSF dollars leveraged 3:1

    • Provide comparable funds for GMT

      • Include funds for instrument concepts; technology

      • Program will be open to the entire US community

    Investment in tmt

    Investment in TMT

    • Responds directly to AASC recommendations

    • The community will receive observing time in proportion to the public investment

    • AURA is represented at all levels in the project

      • The community has a ‘seat at the table’ throughout the Design and Development Phase

    • TMT Partners committed to engaging the community

      • Involve US and Canadian communities in instrument design

      • Involve US community members in the TMT SAC

    Advantages of aura s approach

    Advantages of AURA’s Approach

    • Directly responsive to SWG recommendations

      • Will fund two ELT programs: GMT and TMT

    • US community is engaged in ELT efforts and will receive time in proportion to federal investment in all ELTs

    • Open dialog between projects benefits all and leaves open a ‘convergence path’

    • Technology investment in ELT programs will result in significant gains for existing telescopes

      Initial NSF funds received ($1M for FY05; $3M in FY06)

      Ramp up in FY 07

    Nio roles

    NIO Roles

    • Design M2 and M3 support and control system

    • Design Laser launch facility

    • Manage site evaluation process

    • Develop observatory requirements document

    • Provide engineering support: CFD; opto-mechanical design

    • Design MIRES (UH-NOAO collaboration)

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