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U.S. History EOCT test. Unit 5 Preparation. The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. SSUSH 11. SSUSH 11a.

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U s history eoct test

U.S. History EOCT test

Unit 5 Preparation

Ssush 11

The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.


Ssush 11a


Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business

Bessemer process

Bessemer Process

  • Process for making steel invented by Henry Bessemer.

  • Made Steel stronger by removing impurities.

  • Uses air to blow out gases and carbon that weaken steel.

Benefits of the bessemer process

Benefits of the Bessemer Process

  • Steel made cheaper and more affordable.

  • Made for faster expansion of railroads. And more construction.

  • Products made from steel are longer lasting and withstand pressure

U s history eoct test

The 1860s Expansion of Railroads caused Big Business to dominate the Economy of the United States.

U s history eoct test

The Increase in Railroadsstimulated national economic growth.



  • Main goal is to eliminate competition.

  • Considered unfair by progressives.

  • During the 1800s industrial and business leaders accumulate wealth by forming monopolies and trusts.

U s history eoct test



An economic market in which there is only one supplier of a product and no market competition and the company has complete control over quality, wages, Prices.

The only company.

No other choice to buy the product or service.





Georgia Power is the only power company in Bainbridge. You can’t switch over to another company.

If you want a cell phone you can shop with (Choice):

Verizon Wireless



Organization of business to eliminate competition

Organization of Business to Eliminate Competition

Horizontal Integration

Vertical Integration

A business strategy in which one corporation owns not only the company that produces the finished product, but also the companies that provide the materials needed. In some instances, the transportation to the market is also owned.

  • A business strategy in which one corporation buys out all of its competitors. For instance, One Steel mill will buy out other steel mills that are competing against it.

Example of vertical integration used by andrew carnegie in the formation of carnegie steel company

Example of Vertical Integration Used by Andrew Carnegie in the formation of Carnegie Steel company

Vertical integration

Vertical Integration

  • Type of organization in which a company owns and controls the entire process of production from raw materials to manufacture and sale of finished product.

Owns company that makes steel

Owns Company that Makes Steel

Owns iron ore mine

Owns Iron Ore Mine

Owns railroad to transport steel

Owns Railroad to Transport Steel

Purpose of horizontal vertical integration

Purpose of Horizontal & Vertical Integration

  • John D. Rockefeller once said in his own words that he was determined to “pay nobody a profit”

  • The purpose was to cut down on cost and enjoy the profits of the business.

  • Simple formula to get rich: Bring in more money than you pay out!

Andrew carnegie

Andrew Carnegie

  • Scottish born founder of Carnegie Steel

  • Company that produced more steel than all of Great Britain

  • Sold his company to J.P. Morgan for almost $500 million in 1901

  • Then devoted his time to “Gospel of Wealth” – using his wealth to finance philanthropy

Ssush 11b


Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor.

Impact of railroads positive

Impact of Railroads - Positive

  • Made it easier for people to move west and populate the west at a faster rate.

  • Made life in the west possible by allowing farmers, ranchers, and other settlers access to eastern markets and resources.

Impact of railroads negative

Impact of Railroads - Negative

  • Native Americans will suffer.

  • Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live.

  • Interrupted Native American way of life.

  • Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations.

  • Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)

1862 transcontinental railroad

1862 Transcontinental Railroad

  • Railroad companies financed by the government to build the Transcontinental Railroad to connect eastern and western U.S.

  • Union Pacific Railroad (Eastern)

  • Central Pacific Railroad (Western)

  • Joined at Promontory Point, Utah

Transcontinental railroad

Transcontinental Railroad

Chinese labor on transcontinental railroad

Chinese labor on Transcontinental Railroad

  • Chinese underwent discrimination.

  • Long hours

  • Little pay

  • Harsh weather, extreme heat, cold

  • Dangerous environments.

  • Many died.

Ssush 11c


Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies.

John d rockefeller vertical and horizontal integration

John D. Rockefeller & Vertical and Horizontal Integration

  • John D. Rockefeller owned the Oil industry.

  • Rockefeller bought out other oil businesses. (Horizontal Integration).

  • Rockefeller also owned his own barrels, cans, to ship the oil in, the railroad to ship the Oil on, etc. (Vertical Integration).

  • Rockefeller went a step further when he joined other Monopolies to form a TRUST!



A business formation in which competing companies create one large corporation and each company is entitled to dividends.

U s history eoct test



Set prices.

Control the industry.

Total economic domination.

A business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system with the intention of destroying competition and creating monopolies.





Trusts are illegal now so there are not real examples.

Verizon, Alltell, At&t, Microsoft, and internet providers are not together and must COMPETE with one another to get consumers money.

If Verizon, Alltell, At&t, and Microsoft, Internet providers come together they could dominate the communication industry. Eliminate competition, set prices,

Competition results in cheaper prices, better quality, and more services.

John d rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller

  • Founder of the Standard Oil Company in 1863 at the age of 24

  • He bought our destroyed his competition,

  • Set up a monopoly on the oil industry and became very wealthy

  • Tactic was Horizontal integration – He bought out all competitors to create a Monopoly then a Trust.

J p morgan

J. P. Morgan

  • Bought Carnegie Steel in 1901

  • He merged it and other steel companies into US Steel in march 1901

Robber barons captains of industry

“Robber Barons” “Captains of Industry”

  • Wealthy entrepreneurs and businessmen during the Industrial Age

  • Made the U.S. extremely wealthy – referred to in a positive way as “Captains of Industry”

  • People underpaid, child labor, poor and unhealthy working conditions in order to make a profit – referred to as “Robber Barons”

  • Notable robber barons include Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller

Laissez faire


  • The idea that government would have a “hands-off” policy and would not regulate big Business

  • No Minimum Wage, No OSHA, No law against child labor, no regulatory commissions for safe and clean food.

Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations

Social darwinism

Social Darwinism

  • Theory that grew out of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species theory of biological evolution.

  • “survival of the fittest” Natural Selection

  • Social Darwinism was a theory created by Herbert Spencer to explain the evolution of human society.

  • This theory justified the disparity in wealth and encouraged unregulated competition and frowned on government regulation.

U s history eoct test



Only the fittest will be rich.

Weaker will be poor.

It is natures way.

Natural for this to be.

The idea that promoted inequality in wealth based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution but transferred to social differences among humans.






Bill Gates is rich because he is intelligent and worked hard.

Everyone is equal and should have the same pay regardless.

Average individual that drops out school, doesn’t read, and does drugs lives in poverty and jail because he/she is weaker and inferior.

Government Regulation of Business. (minimum wage, OSHA, 40 hr. work week, no child labor)

Redistribution of Wealth - Socialism.

John d rockefeller quote

John D. Rockefeller Quote

“The growth of large business is merely the survival of the fittest.”

Ssush 11d


Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life.

Thomas edison

Thomas Edison

  • Wizard of Menlo park

  • Invented electric light bulb, motion pictures, phonograph,

  • Impacted American life.

Light bulb electric power stations

Light Bulb & Electric Power Stations

  • Allowed factory workers to work at night and production to occur at night.

  • Electric Power Stations make electric power possible throughout cities. (steam powered)

Motion pictures

Motion Pictures

  • Made Movies Possible

Charlie Chaplin

First Actor, Silent Movies

Miriam Hopkins

Major Movie Actress

Born Bainbridge, GA

Acted 1930’s 1940’s

Buried Oak City Cemetery

Miriam Hopkins

Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde,




  • Made music and recorded sound possible.

  • We have advanced to Mp3 and IPods.

Ssush 12

The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.


Ssush 12a


Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrant’s origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America.

Old immigration

Old Immigration

  • Immigrants first come from Northern and Western Europe

New immigration

NEW Immigration

  • New Immigration refers to a change in the origin, or home place, of immigrants coming to the United States.

  • New Immigrants come from Southern and Eastern Europe.

Ellis island

Ellis Island

  • All immigrants coming into the east coast by way of the Atlantic Ocean come to Ellis Island.

U s history eoct test

Statue of Liberty

- Ellis Island

Impact of change on urban america

Impact of Change on Urban America

Why did they come

Why did they come?

  • Jobs created by the need for Labor as a result of the Industrial Revolution.

How did increased immigration impact cities

How did increased Immigration impact Cities?

Overcrowding! – many people lived in one house.

Tenement houses

Tenement Houses

Ethnic ghettos

Ethnic Ghettos

Child labor

Child Labor

  • Many immigrants were so poor their children had to work.

  • The parents let them.

  • The business let them.

  • Where should they be?

U s history eoct test

  • Spider has Child Labor written on it.

  • Web has Profit, Greed, Luxury, Poverty, Ignorance, and Indifferent written.

Are you glad to be in school today

Are you glad to be in School today?

Ssush 12b


Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers.

Samuel gompers afl

Samuel Gompers - AFL

  • Founder of American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886

  • Used collective bargaining to negotiate with businesses for higher wages, better working conditions, etc.

U s history eoct test



Minimum Wage

No Child Labor

40 hour work week

Equal pay for women and men

The group membership of workers that fought for fairness in the workforce





American Federation of Labor



Convenience store clerks

National Education Association

American Medical Association

American Bar Association

Strategies of unions

Strategies of Unions

  • Collective Bargaining (Employees negotiate as a group rather than individually)

  • Strikes (Refusal of workers to work until employers meet their demands).

  • Boycotts (Refusal to buy or pay for certain products or services to force businesses to change policies.

  • Closed Shop (Workplaces where employers could only hire union members)

U s history eoct test



Low pay

Unequal pay

Long working hours

Child labor

Unsafe working conditions

Workers or laborers upset or angered to the point of strike. Quit working and protest perceived unfair working conditions.






1894 Pullman Strike

Union membership

Minimum wage

40 hr work week

Ssush 12d


Describe the 1894 Pullman Strike as an example of Industrial unrest.

1894 pullman strike

1894 Pullman Strike

  • A good example of industrial unrest.

  • Turned into a violent strike against workers and management.

  • Ended when the federal government sent in troops.

1894 pullman strike reasons

1894 Pullman Strike - Reasons

  • George Pullman

  • Owner of Pullman Car Company

  • Laid off workers

  • Also cut wages, didn’t lower rent

  • Unions strike

  • Pullman closes company rather than deal with Unions

1894 pullman strike resolved

1894 Pullman Strike - resolved

  • Pullman car was loaded with U.S. Mail

  • Federal government filed an injunction (legal order from court to break up strike)

  • President Grover Cleveland calls in federal troops to break up the strike.

Ssush 12c


Describe the growth of western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.

Growth of western population negative

Growth of Western Population - Negative

  • Native Americans will suffer.

  • Buffalo are killed and great numbers by fur trappers and cow ranchers and the Plains Indians relied heavily on the Buffalo to live.

  • Interrupted Native American way of life.

  • Native Americans forced to relocate to reservations.

  • Native Americans forced to assimilate American customs and ways of life. (Dawes Act)

U s history eoct test

  • lived at the Standing Rock Agency. In 1889 a treaty was made reducing Sioux territory. Difficulties in the working of this, and religious excitement in connection with the Ghost Dance craze, led to an outbreak in 1890.

  • Rumors of a coming Indian Messiah who would defeat the whites, and Indian dissatisfaction at the disposition of their territory, created such great turmoil in 1889—1890 that the US Army decided to arrest Sitting Bull as a precaution.   Sitting Bull and three hundred Indians were killed at Wounded Knee Creek, and the Sioux were finally subdued.

Chief Sitting Bull

Dawes act

Dawes Act

  • 1887 act of Congress aimed at breaking up traditional Indian life by promoting land ownership.

  • It divided up tribal lands into individual plots and Indians were encouraged to farm.

Ssush 13

The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era.


U s history eoct test



Minimum Wage laws

Child labor laws

40 hr work week laws

Safety laws

Laws protecting unions

The movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills.






Meat Inspection Act

Laissez faire “hands off”

Conservation movement

U s history eoct test

The movement that called for more government action in the regulation of business, work environment, and called for laws governing morality, standards in education, and city development to improve societies ills.

Ssush 13a


Explain Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry.

Upton sinclair

Upton Sinclair

  • Exposed the unsanitary methods used in the Chicago Meatpacking Industry.

  • Sinclair stated, “I aimed for the publics hearts, and accidentally hit its stomach!”

  • Theodore Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act after reading.

Ssush 13b


Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements.

Jane adams hull house

Jane Adams – Hull House

  • Purpose was to help inner city “Urban” poor.

  • Immigrants learned how to read, write, and speak English.

  • Night school for adults, kindergarten classes for kids, clubs for older children, a public kitchen,

Ssush 13c


Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP.

Booker t washington

Booker T. Washington

  • Founder of Tuskegee Normal & Industrial College

  • Encouraged blacks to seek technical training for jobs to be accepted into white culture.

  • Blamed black poverty on blacks and urged them to accept discrimination.

W e b du bois

W.E.B. Du Bois

  • Criticized Washington’s ideas

  • Encouraged blacks to seek higher education and become leaders (lawyers, doctors, politicians, etc.) so that they could fight discrimination in court and society.

  • Wanted immediate social and economic equality for African Americans



  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

  • Aimed to full equality among the races.Full civil rights for African Americans.

  • W.E.B. Du Bois helped establish this group

U s history eoct test



Social and legal laws that were meant to separate the races in society.

Black & White water fountains

Black & White Schools

Jim Crow




Blacks had to move to the back of the bus to allow white people to sit up front.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Blacks could not eat in white restuaraunts.

Plessy v ferguson 1896

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

  • Established “Separate but Equal” doctrine.

  • Ruled that it was not unconstitutional to separate the races as long as they had equal services.

  • Segregation (separation of races) legal.

Homer Plessy

Jim crow era

Jim Crow Era

  • Laws passed from 1870s to 1880’s in various states.

  • Took away newly won rights of African Americans- especially right to vote.

  • Examples: Poll tax, literacy test for voting, grandfather clause

  • Separate public facilities for races.

Ssush 13d


Explain Ida Tarbell’s role as a muckraker.

Social gospel movement

Social Gospel Movement

  • Preached salvation through service to the poor.

  • Reformers such as Jane Addams and her Hull House of Chicago responded.

  • Encouraged government action and regulation of business and corrupt politics.

  • Encouraged social programs by the government

U s history eoct test



Inform public

Influence government policy

Cause change in society

Journalists that used writing to expose corruption, government scandal, or the wrongs in society.





Upton Sinclair – Chicago meatpacking

Literature that covers up and hides scandals and wrongs.

Ida Tarbell – The History of Standard Oil

Ida tarbell

Ida Tarbell

  • Wrote about the unfair business practices of John D. Rockefeller.

  • Calls for anti-trust legislation.

Other muckrakers

Other Muckrakers

Ssush 13e


Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities.

U s history eoct test

Senators Chosen


Before 17th Amendment



U s history eoct test

ProgressiveEra Federal Legislation Cont…

Ssush 13f


Describe the conservation movement and the development of national parks and forests; include the role of Theodore Roosevelt.

Theodore roosevelt

Fought in the Spanish American War

Oversaw building of the Panama Canal

Led the Rough Riders at the Battle of San Juan Hill

Issued the Roosevelt Corollary (an extension of the Monroe Doctrine)

Preservation or Conservation of U.S. Natural resources.

Theodore Roosevelt

U s history eoct test



To keep land from businesses.

Not allow homes or industry to clear trees and forests.

Protect by government law.

The setting aside land to preserve it from the devastating effects of industrialization and the closing of the frontier.





Yellow Stone National Park

Land for mining, excavating for oil, gold, iron ore, or marble.

Yosemite National Park

National parks conservation

National Parks - Conservation

Ssush 14

The Student will explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century.


Ssush 14a


Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast.

Chinese exclusion act

Chinese Exclusion Act

  • Law passed in Congress in 1882 to restrict the immigration of Chinese into the United States.

  • Was not repealed until 1943

U s history eoct test



Do not like Catholics.

Do not like Communists.

Do not like Chinese.

The idea that to oppose immigration of cultures that were different. Usually leads to violence and discrimination and based on fear of different cultures.





Chinese Exclusion Act

Equal employment

Civil Rights

Equality under the Law


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