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Why So Many Fish in Alaska?. ~ 60-65% of US Food Fish are Landed in Alaska WHY? 1. Alaska is Surrounded by Oceans a. Oceanographic Currents b. Ice Edge Considerations 2. Alaska’s Shoreline & Continental Shelf 3. Geological Nutrient Input into Alaskan Waters

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Why So Many Fish in Alaska?

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Why so many fish in alaska

Why So Many Fish in Alaska?

~ 60-65% of US Food Fish are Landed in Alaska WHY?

1. Alaska is Surrounded by Oceans

a. Oceanographic Currents

b. Ice Edge Considerations

2. Alaska’s Shoreline & Continental Shelf

3. Geological Nutrient Input into Alaskan Waters

a. Loess - Windborne Dusts

b. Suspended Sediments in Rivers

c. Volcanic Ash

4. Climate Controlled Nutrient Input

Volcanic nutrients

Volcanic Nutrients

Ecology of boreal subarctic waters i

Ecology of Boreal & Subarctic Waters I

1. Define Ecosystem Health: Temperate & Tropical

Systems - Definition is Species Diversity

2. Evolutionary Divisions in T&T Communities

- Speciation by Niche Specialization

3. In T&T Communities: Nearest Neighbor

Distance - Meters to Tens of Meters

Specialists versus generalists

Specialists Versus Generalists

1. Specialists

a. Allows Escape from Direct Competition

b. More Efficient - Greater Degree Fine Tuning

c. Less Evolutionarily Flexible

2. Generalists

a. Less Efficient - Tuned to Different Seasons

b. Greater Exposure to Direct Competition

c. Greater Evolutionary Flexibility





Ecology boreal subarctic waters ii

Ecology Boreal & Subarctic Waters II

1. Ecosystem Health in Boreal & Subarctic Waters

- DefinedNot by Species Diversity

2. Evolutionary Divisions B&SA Communities

- Generalists Predominate - Seasonal Differences

3. B&SA Communities Nearest Neighbor Distance

- Monocultures Covering Vast Areas

Boreal subarctic species

Boreal & Subarctic Species

1. Ongoing Biological Research

a. Cold Adaptation

b. Reproductive Ecology

c. Census of Marine Life

2. Needed Research

a. B&SA Community Ecology

b. Winter Physiology

c. Stress, Disease & Monocultures

Boreal subarctic ecology bottom line

Boreal & Subarctic Ecology: Bottom Line

1. Use Caution When Attempting to Apply Ecological Principles Derived from T&T

2. Estimations of Over-Fishing Cannot Be Based On Comparisons with T&T Populations

3. Generalist Physiological Parameters Can Be Markedly Different from Niche Specialists

4. Boreal & Subarctic Waters can be Distinct in Their Ecology Compared with T&T

5. Caution: Potential Cryptic Sister Species: Cucumaria lubrica C. vegae assemblage.

Why so many fish in alaska1

1. Area of Continental Shelf

2. Length of Coastline

3. State’s Land Area

4. Number of Unpolluted Rivers

5. Boreal and Subarctic Waters

6. Extremes in Sunlight

7. Ample Nutrients

8. Huge Algal Blooms

9. Excellent Management

Why So Many Fish In Alaska?

Human migrations into north america

Human Migrations into North America

Clovis Culture ~12,000 bp

Probably Multiple Migrations

Concept of Bering Land Bridge -

Land Migrations

Ice Free Corridor

Coastal Migrations

Some Newer Evidence

Most Likely Sites Now Underwater

Bering land bridge

Bering Land Bridge

Bering land bridge 16 200 ybp

Bering Land Bridge 16,200 ybp

Beringia human migration

Beringia & Human Migration

Beringia 15 000 ybp

Beringia 15,000 ybp

Linguistic vs dna data

Linguistic vs DNA Data

DNA Evidence Shows

Not all Speakers share same DNA

Evidence of Multiple Migrations Many after 10,000 ybp

Bering Land Bridge Flooded 10,000 ybp

Close Affinity with Siberians

Newer Groups Moved Further South

Tlinket & Haida among most recent

Alaskan native language map

Alaskan Native Language Map

Hunting sea mammals

Hunting Sea Mammals

Age classes i

Age Classes I

Yupik fishing technology

Yupik Fishing Technology

Closed inupiat stone fish trap

Closed Inupiat Stone Fish Trap

Open inupiat stone fish trap

Open Inupiat Stone Fish Trap

Archaeological dig sw alaska

Archaeological Dig SW Alaska

Ancient fish spears

Ancient Fish Spears

Ancient barbed spears

Ancient Barbed Spears

Ancient harpoon tips

Ancient Harpoon Tips

Reconstructed halibut hook

Reconstructed Halibut Hook

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