FISH
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saltwater fish. water diffuses out. ions diffuse in. drink a lot ... 3 inches fish/ gallon. saltwater. 0.5 inches fish/ gallon. excluding tail fin. Ammonia ...

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Slide1 l.jpg

FISH

FISH BIOLOGY AND HUSBANDRY


Taxonomy teleosts bony fish l.jpg

soft rayed teleosts

spiney rayed teleosts

TaxonomyTeleosts = bony fish



Slide4 l.jpg
Fins

  • supported by rays

    • two types of rays

      • soft

      • spines


Fin identification l.jpg
Fin Identification

  • unpaired fins

    • dorsal

    • caudal

    • anal

  • paired fins

    • pectoral

    • pelvic


Slide6 l.jpg
Skin

  • epidermis

    • mucous glands

    • alarm cells

    • cuticle

  • dermis

    • scales

  • hypodermis


Scales l.jpg
Scales

  • placoid

  • ganoid

  • cycloid

  • ctenoid

  • absent


Lateral line l.jpg
Lateral line

  • sensory system

    • a line of pores lead to mechanoreceptors

  • environmental information

    • pressure, currents, sound


Color l.jpg
Color

  • cells

    • chromatophores

      • pigments

    • iridophores

      • reflective substances

  • control

    • endocrine system

    • nervous system



Respiratory system l.jpg
Respiratory system

  • lungs

  • gills

    • bilateral

    • operculum


Gill structure l.jpg
Gill structure

  • gill arches

  • primary lamellae (filaments)

  • secondary lamellae


Cardiovascular system l.jpg
Cardiovascular system

  • 2 chamber heart

    • atrium

    • ventricle

    • sinus venosus

    • bulbus arteriosus


Circulation l.jpg
Circulation

  • venous blood to heart

    • hepatic portal system

    • renal portal system

  • heart to gills

    • via ventral aorta

  • gills to body

    • via dorsal aorta


Red blood cells l.jpg
Red blood cells

  • elliptical and nucleated

  • no bone marrow

  • main source

    • head kidney


White blood cells l.jpg
White blood cells

  • Similar to mammalian

  • no lymph nodes or GALT

  • lymphocytes > neutrophils

  • lymphoid tissues

    • thymus

    • head kidney

    • spleen

    • melanomacrophage centers


Excretory system l.jpg
Excretory system

  • gills

  • kidneys

    • anterior kidney

    • posterior kidney


Osmoregulation l.jpg
Osmoregulation

  • electrolyte balance

  • freshwater vs saltwater


Osmoregulation19 l.jpg

freshwater fish

water diffuses in

ions diffuse out

drink little

lots of dilute urine

actively reabsorb ions

kidneys

gills

saltwater fish

water diffuses out

ions diffuse in

drink a lot

concentrated urine

actively excrete ions

kidneys

gills

gut

Osmoregulation


Swim bladder l.jpg
Swim bladder

  • Two types

    • physoclistic

      • capillary network

    • physostomatous

      • pneumatic duct

  • functions

    • buoyancy

    • sound, pressure detection


Digestive system l.jpg
Digestive system

  • Stomach

  • intestine

    • pyloric

    • middle

    • rectal

    • spiral colon

    • pyloric cecae

  • liver

  • pancreas


Nutrition l.jpg
Nutrition

  • Species variation

    • food

    • feeding behavior

      • time

      • location

      • obtaining food

  • general fish nutrition

    • protein and lipids > carbohydrates


Neuroendocrine system l.jpg
Neuroendocrine system

  • brain

    • forebrain

      • olfactory bulbs

    • midbrain

      • optic lobes

    • cerebellum

    • spinal cord


Electrical system l.jpg
Electrical system

  • electric organs

  • electroreceptors

  • examples

    • electric eel

    • electric catfish

    • electric ray


Biolumination l.jpg
Biolumination

  • self -luminous

    • photophores

    • luciferase

  • symbiotic bacteria



Water environments l.jpg
Water environments

  • freshwater

  • brackish water

  • saltwater


Slide28 l.jpg

Freshwater system

specific gravity: 1.00

Brackish system

specific gravity 1.01

Saltwater system

specific gravity: 1.02


Bioload l.jpg
Bioload

  • Nonaerated freshwater

    • 1 inch fish/ gallon

  • aerated freshwater

    • 3 inches fish/ gallon

  • saltwater

    • 0.5 inches fish/ gallon

  • excluding tail fin


Ammonia l.jpg
Ammonia

  • Nitrogenous

  • fish waste product

  • toxic


Nitrification l.jpg
Nitrification

  • BacteriaBacteria

  • (Nitrosomas)(Nitrobacter)

    • ammonia nitrite nitrate


Conditioning a new tank l.jpg
Conditioning a new tank

  • seeding bacteria

  • limited population

  • time


Slide33 l.jpg
PH

  • ranges

    • freshwater: 7.0-7.6

    • brackish: 7.0-7.6

    • saltwater: 8.1-8.3


Decreased ph l.jpg

effects

inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter

direct health problems for fish

control

check bioload

remove waste

calcium rich substrate

sodium bicarbonate

temporary

Decreased PH


Increased ph l.jpg

effects

ammonia is more toxic

nonionized

direct health problems for fish

control

check substrates for calcium rich ones

peat moss

acetic acid

temporary

Increased PH


Oxygen l.jpg
Oxygen

  • water:0.7% dissolved oxygen

  • oxygen solubility decreases as:

    • temperature increases

    • salinity increases

  • low oxygen effects:

    • respiratory distress in fish

    • inhibits Nitrosomas and Nitrobacter


Oxygen37 l.jpg
Oxygen

  • replenished by:

    • air:water interface

    • aeration system

  • monitored as DO

    • Dissolved Oxygen


Temperature l.jpg
Temperature

  • preferred ranges variable

    • 0 – 45C

  • temperature changes should be gradual

    • no more than 1 C/ 2 minutes in tank

    • no more than 2 -3 C between tanks


Light l.jpg
Light

  • light cycles

    • 12/12

    • at least 8-10/24 hours of darkness

  • light source

    • fluorescent most common

    • no incandescent

    • no direct sunlight


Chlorine chloramines l.jpg
Chlorine/ Chloramines

  • toxic/ lethal to fish

  • removal

    • aeration and time

    • sodium thiosulfate

    • carbon filter


Heavy metals l.jpg
Heavy metals

  • toxic/lethal to fish

  • sources

    • metal pipes

    • metal tank frames

    • metal decoration

  • saltwater

    • extremely corrosive to metals


Filtration l.jpg
Filtration

  • mechanical filtration

  • chemical filtration

  • biological filtration


Mechanical filtration l.jpg

Physically traps suspended particles

sand, gravel, floss, plastic,diatomaceous earth

Mechanical Filtration


Chemical filtration l.jpg

chemically binds and removes dissolved compounds

charcoal, protein skimmer, UV, ozone

Chemical Filtration


Biological filtration l.jpg
Biological Filtration

  • Nitrification

    • bacteria

    • substrates:

      • plastic, gravel, live rock, decorations



Social behaviors l.jpg
Social Behaviors

  • species specific





Environmental behavior l.jpg
Environmental behavior

  • geotaxis

  • phototaxis

  • electrotaxis

  • thygmotaxis

  • rheotaxis

  • chemotaxis


Reproductive system l.jpg
Reproductive system

  • female

    • ovaries

    • oviduct

    • no uterus

  • male

    • testes


Fertilization l.jpg
Fertilization

  • External fertilization

    • open-spawners

    • substrates

  • Internal fertilization


Breeding l.jpg
Breeding

  • females and males

  • hermaphrodites


Gestation l.jpg
Gestation

  • oviparous

  • ovoviviparous

  • viviparous


Spawning l.jpg
Spawning

  • Control

    • hormonal

    • environmental cues

    • seasonal

  • Ovulation

    • once/season

    • more than once/season

  • Inducible



Research58 l.jpg
Research

  • Advantages

    • diversity-30,000 species

    • easy to maintain in large numbers

    • reproduce rapidly

    • External fertilization/large eggs

  • many species used

    • Zebrafish, Japanese meduka


Research areas l.jpg
Research areas

  • embryology

  • growth and regenertion

  • genetics and transgenics

  • toxicology and environmental monitoring

  • neoplasia

  • ocular

  • pharmacodynamics

  • physiology


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