Water and Ocean Structure
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Water and Ocean Structure. WORLDS WATER SOURCES:. Learning Objectives 1. Understand the nature of the water molecule and its unique properties (polarity, density and thermal properties) and how these are altered by the presence of salt in solution.

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Water and Ocean Structure

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Water and ocean structure

Water and Ocean Structure


Water and ocean structure

WORLDS WATER SOURCES:


Water and ocean structure

Learning Objectives

1. Understand the nature of the water molecule and its unique properties (polarity, density and thermal properties) and how these are altered by the presence of salt in solution.

2. Know the types of materials that are dissolved in sea water, their importance and how they vary with time.

3. Explain variations in salinity, temperature, and pressure within the sea and how they alter the chemical and physical properties of the ocean.


Water and ocean structure

States of Matter (e.g. water)


Water and ocean structure

States of Matter (e.g. water)


Water and ocean structure

Atomic Structure


Water and ocean structure

http://www.dayah.com/periodic/Other/Periodic%20Table.pdf


Water and ocean structure

Hydrogen bonds – cohesion - surface tension!


Water and ocean structure

http://www-math.mit.edu/~dhu/Climberweb/climberweb.html


The formation of ice in freshwater

The formation of ice in freshwater:


Water and ocean structure

Density of freshwater:

Seawater density depends on temperature, salinity and pressure! Therefore, it increases with > salt content at const. temp;

high density in cold, salty waters –why is this important?


Water and ocean structure

Why does ice float on water?


Water and ocean structure

Water is a powerful solvent:

(“the universal solvent”)

Sodium Chloride

Rock SALT

Cation

Anion

Ions


Water and ocean structure

Cycling of dissolved components in seawater:

Did oceans’ salinity increase over time?


Major dissolved components in seawater

Major dissolved components in seawater:

35 g of salt in 1000 g of seawater


Residence time

Residence Time

  • How long do the various dissolved ions stay in the ocean? Depends on how “reactive” they are.

  • Residence Time: The average time spent by a substance in the Ocean = Amount in SeaRate entering or exiting


Water and ocean structure

The layer of rapidly changing salinity with depth; 300-1000 meters;

Same as pycnocline (density) and thermocline;


Water and ocean structure

Salinity map showing areas of high salinity (36 o/oo) in green,

medium salinity in blue (35 o/oo), and low salinity (34 o/oo) in

purple. Salinity is rather stable but areas in the North Atlantic,

South Atlantic, South Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea,

and Mediterranean Sea tend to be a little high (green). Areas near

Antarctica, the Arctic Ocean, Southeast Asia, and the West Coast

of North and Central America tend to be a little low (purple).

http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/02ocean/swcomposition.htm


Water and ocean structure

Why is surface Atlantic more salty than Pacific?

http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/lectures/saltyatlantic.html


Summary

Summary:

  • Water is a polar molecule -- unique properties (melting pt, heat capacity, dissolving power, water denser than ice)

  • Salinity is the total dissolved solids

  • Salinity in the surface ocean varies by Evaporation - Precipitation

  • Principle ofConstant Proportions

  • Residence Time in the Oceans


Water and ocean structure

pH = potential/power of hydrogen

Carbonate buffering system keeps the pH of seawater constant = 8.1


Water and ocean structure

Carbonate Buffering System


Water and ocean structure

using  Kinetic temperature definition

What is temperature?


Water and ocean structure

It is a direct measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules that make up substance. Temp. changes when heat energy is added to or removed from a substance.

It is measured in (Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit).

What is temperature?


Water and ocean structure

HEAT

(the energy of moving molecules = kinetic energy)

1) Represents the transfer of energy from high to low temperature. Therefore, heat has units of Energy (1 calorie, calor = heat; the amount of heat required to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water by 1 C°);

2) An object does not possess "heat"; the appropriate term for the microscopic energy in an object is internal energy.


Temperature vs heat

Temperature vs Heat

  • Temperature is a measure of how fast the molecules in a substance are moving

  • Heat is a measure of how much energy has to be put into (or gotten out of) a substance to change its temperature, or “state” (solid, liquid, gas)


Water and ocean structure

First Law of Thermodynamics


Water and ocean structure

Heat Capacity – the amount of heat required to raise the temp. of 1 g of any substance by 1 °C;

– Water has one of the highest heat capacities known, which makes water excellent heat transfer material; and

– therefore, allows ocean currents to moderate global climate!


Water and ocean structure

Evaporation from lakes, oceans, rivers, etc. occurs for temperatures lower than 100 oC

But it requires more energy to do so


Water and ocean structure

Atmospheric transport of surplus heat from low latitudes into heat deficient high latitudes areas:


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