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THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON LAND DEGRADATION. IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN by France Jade. WORLD’S TOP TOURISM DESTINATIONS. Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2001. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM RECEIPTS. Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2001. WORLD’S TOP TOURISM EARNERS.

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the effects of tourism on land degradation

THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON LAND DEGRADATION

IN

THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

by France Jade

world s top tourism destinations
WORLD’S TOP TOURISM DESTINATIONS

Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2001

international tourism receipts
INTERNATIONAL TOURISM RECEIPTS

Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2001

world s top tourism earners
WORLD’S TOP TOURISM EARNERS

Source: World Tourism Organisation, 2001

slide5

GLOBAL TOURISM

  • NOW THE WORLDS LARGEST INDUSTRY
  • IN 2000 INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS REACHED AN ALL TIME HIGH OF 698 MILLION.
  • GROWTH RATE OF 7.4% DOUBLE THE GROWTH RATE OF1999.
  • THE MARKET SHARE WAS FOUND TO BE: EUROPE - 48.6% AMERICAS - 28.7% EAST ASIA & PACIFIC - 17.3% (WTO 2000)
  • THE MEDERTERRANEAN BASIN ACCOUNTS FOR 35% OF THE INTERNATIONAL TOURIST TRADE AND IS THE WORLD’S LEADING TOURIST AREA.
slide6

DETREMENTAL EFFECTS OF MASS TOURISM

  • INCREASED PRESURE ON NATURAL RESOURCES WATER AND ENERGY.
  • INCREASED WASTE AND SEWAGE POLLUTION
  • TRANSPORTAION POLLUTION
  • COMPETITION FOR LAND USE LEADING TO INCREASE IN LAND PRICES IN DESIRABLE AREAS OFTEN INVOLVING LARGE INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS.
  • CREATION OF TOURIST UBANISATIONS LEADING TO SKEWED SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS.
slide7

AIR TRAVEL

  • THE FASTEST GROWING SOURCE OF GREENHOUSE GASES
  • 1 TONNE OF CARBON DIOXIDE PER PASSENGER IS RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE ON A LONDON-NEW YORK FLIGHT.
  • AIRCRAFT POLLUTION CAUSES 3.5% OF MAN-MADE GLOBAL WARMING WITH ADDITIONAL EFFECTS FROM THE FORMATION OF ICE CRYSTALS AT HIGH ALTITUDES.(IPCC)
  • NO TAX ON AVIATION FUEL
  • INTRODUCTION OF GREEN TAX, THE INDUSTRY IS OPPOSED.
slide9

THE IBERIAN PENISULAR

  • A LONG HISTORY OF ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS RESULTING IN EVER INCREASING LAND DEGRADATION
  • THE ‘BAD LANDS’ ARCHEALOGICAL EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT THIS OCCURRED 5000 YEARS AGO.
  • 16TH-17TH CENTURY ESTABLISHED CHRISTIAN RULE AND COLONISATION OF AMERICAS LED TO A SOUTHWARD EXPANSION OF AGRICULTURE AND HIGH DEMAND FOR WOOD & WOOL
  • 18TH CENTURY POPULATION INCREASE
  • 1960’S TECHNOLOGICAL, SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CHANGES THAT ALTERED RURAL LIFE THAT CONTINUE TODAY
population
POPULATION
  • LAND DEGRADATION OCCURS WHEN THE PRESSURE ON THE AVAILABLE LAND RESOURCES AND SERVICES BECOME TO GREAT.
  • SOURTHERN MEDITERRANEAN ZONES (SMZ) -300% POPULATION INCREASE SINCE 1950.
  • NMZ - 30% POPULATION INCREASE SINCE 1950
  • IN NMZ POPULATION RELOCATION IS OCCURING DUE TO LITTORALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY
  • THIS POPULATION CONCENTRATION IN COASTAL AREAS IS A DIRECT RESULT OF INDUSTRIALISATION, CHANGING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND TOURISM.
intensification of agriculture
INTENSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE
  • LAND DEGRADATION OCCURS WHEN THE PRESSURE ON THE AVAILABLE LAND RESOURCES AND SERVICES BECOME TOO GREAT.
  • COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY(CAP) HAS ENCOURAGED FARMERS TO INTENSIFY PRODUCTION PARTICULARLY IN THE OLIVE SECTOR, THROUGH PRODUCTION SUBSIDIES.
  • THIS HAS LED TO SMALLER FARMERS ABANDONING LAND OR SELLING TO DEVELOPERS.
  • IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS AN ESTIMATED 80t/ha OF TOP SOIL IS LOST ANNUALLY.
  • LAND ABANDOMENT CAN ALSO LEAD TO EROSION WHEN INTENSIVE GRAZING OCCURS AND TRADITIONAL TERRACE SYSTEMS ARE NO LONGER MAINTAINED.
pressures causing desertification
PRESSURES CAUSING DESERTIFICATION
  • DESERTIFICATION - THE DEGRADATION OF ARID, SEMI AND DRY SUB-HUMID AREAS CAUSED BY CLIMATIC CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES. IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A REDUCTION IN THE NATURAL POTENTIAL OF THE LAND AND DEPLETION IN SURFACE AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES. (UNCCD)
  • FOREST FIRES AND DEFORESTATION
  • OVERGRAZING
  • AGRICULURAL PRACTICES.
  • IRRATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES CONSTUCTION OF DAMS CANALISATION OF RIVERS OVEREXPLOITATION OF GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE OF WETLANDS POLUTION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS.
the ever increasing demand for water
THE EVER INCREASING DEMAND FOR WATER
  • THE MAIN CONSUMER FOR WATER IS INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE BUT TOURISM IS INCREASINGLY COMPETING.
  • ABSTRACTION ALREADY EXCEEDS THE RECHARGE CAPACITY OF GROUND WATER IN MANY AREAS.
  • WATER SCARCITY LEADS TO THE CREATION OF RESERVOIRS, DAMS AND TRANSPORTATION OF WATER OVER LARGE DISTANCES.
  • NATIONAL AND REGIONAL HYDROLOGICAL PLANS DEFECTIVE 1. INTERGRATED WATER RESOURCE SCHEMES NOT INCLUDED 2. DOMINATED BY SHORT TERM REQUIREMENTS 3. DRIVE TO INCREASE WATER AVAILABILITY THEN IMPROVE WATER MANAGEMENT.
  • THE NATIONAL WATER PLAN PROPOSES TO PUMP ONE BILLION LITRES PER YEAR FROM THE NORTHERN EBRO RIVER IS MET WITH HUGE OPPOSITION FROM ENGO’S.
slide18

PROPOSED PIPELINE TO TRANSPORT WATER FROMTHE NORTH TO REGIONS IN THESOUTH TO SUPORT THE EVERINCRESING DEMANDS FOR AGRICULTURE AND TOURISM

ecotourism
ECOTOURISM
  • THERE IS NO INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED DEFINITION OF ECOTOURISM, NO CERTIFICATION SYSTEM OR INTERNATIONAL MONITORING BODY. IT DOES NOT DENOTE SUSTAINABILITY.
  • ECOTOURISM REPRESENTS A NICHE MARKET AND REPRESENTS 2-4% OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST EXPENDITURE.
  • SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES SHOULD APPLY TO ALL TOURIST ACTIVITIES
  • AN ECOTAX HAS BEEN DECIDED UPON IN THE BALEARICS TO ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS THE SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE TOURIST BOOM OF THE PAST 3 DECADES.
  • THE INTERNATIONAL TOURIST INDUSTRY HAVE LOBBIED FIERCELY AGAINST IT SAYING IT WILL DAMAGE BUSINESS.
the tourist carrying capacity
THE TOURIST CARRYING CAPACITY
  • PHYSICAL CAPACITY ‘THEORETICAL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF RECREATIONALIST AN AREA CAN PHYSICALLY TAKE.
  • PERCEPTUAL CAPACITY ‘THE NUMBER OF RECREATIONALIST AN AREA CAN ACCEPT WITHOUT DIMINISHING THE QUALITY OF THE RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY.
  • ECOLOGICAL CAPACITY ‘THE LEVEL OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY AN ARE CAN UNDERGO BEFORE IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE IS SUSTAINED.
  • IN MANY AREAS THE ECOLOGICAL CAPACITY HAS ALREADY BEEN EXCEEDED.
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