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Developmental psychology. Child development. Developmental psychology. Developmental issues Is it nature or nurture? Or some of each? How much of development is continuous, and how much is in stages? Once a characteristic is formed, is it stable or changeable?

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developmental psychology

Developmental psychology

Child development

developmental psychology1
Developmental psychology
  • Developmental issues
    • Is it nature or nurture? Or some of each?
    • How much of development is continuous, and how much is in stages?
    • Once a characteristic is formed, is it stable or changeable?
    • Conclusion: Development is a life-long process.
child development
Child development
  • Conception and prenatal development
  • Testing the abilities of infants
    • Reflexes and Apgar scores
    • Behavioral: Gaze, suck, turn head
    • Learning and information processing: Odor, sound, taste
  • Neural development: The role of experience
cognitive development
Cognitive development
  • What is cognition?
  • The importance of contingent responses from the environment
    • Watson & Ramey (1972): Mobile control and learned helplessness
  • Piaget’s notion of schemas
  • Processes of cognitive development:
    • Assimilation
    • Accommodation
sensorimotor stage birth to age two
Sensorimotor stage, birth to age two
  • Cognition develops as sensing and acting
  • Object permanence is minimal prior to age 6 months, but:
  • Itunfolds gradually thereafter
  • Habituation learning is seen as early as 7 hours
  • One-month-old babies develop visual schemas for the pacifier they had only felt.
  • Physical impossibilities cause infants to gaze longer (Bailargeon, 1992)
  • Five-month-old babies are sometimes surprised by changes in number
transition
Transition:
  • Deferred imitation
  • Beginning symbol use:
    • Signifiers
    • Language or signs
operations
Operations
  • Preoperational stage
    • Ready use of symbols
    • Age two to seven
    • Egocentrism and conservation
  • Concrete operational stage, age 7 to 11
  • Formal operational stage, after age 12
social development
Social development
  • Stranger anxiety
  • Attachment: Body contact and the secure base (Harlow)
  • Critical periods and imprinting (Lorenz)
  • Study effects of deprivation, daycare, and divorce
    • Key factors: Interaction (responsive parenting) and conflict
parenting styles
Parenting styles
  • Authoritarian parents: Obedient, unhappy, distrustful children
  • Authoritative parents: Highest self-esteem and social competence
  • Permissive parents: Least self-reliant and curious
  • Rejecting-neglecting parents: Troubled kids
  • Critical thinking: Correlational research
adolescence and adulthood
Adolescence and adulthood
  • Moral development

Kohlberg’s research

Carol Gilligan’s critique

Women’s ways of knowing

  • Psychosocial development

Erik Erikson’s model and Shakespeare

  • Intellectual development in adulthood
  • Methods of developmental research
water level task piaget inhelder
Water Level Task (Piaget & Inhelder)
  • Performance improves until, at age 9, it is consistently accurate.
  • However, students in college and graduate school may have difficulty.
  • 50% of men do well, but only 25% of women.
  • Field independent people do better.
  • Mental rotation and error amount correlate
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