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Unit 5.5 MISSION SPECIFIC: Air Monitoring and Sampling. Objectives. Identify IDLH conditions present at a hazardous materials emergency Use air monitoring data to select proper personal protective equipment

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Unit 5 5 mission specific air monitoring and sampling l.jpg

Unit 5.5

MISSION SPECIFIC:

Air Monitoring and Sampling


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Identify IDLH conditions present at a hazardous materials emergency

  • Use air monitoring data to select proper personal protective equipment

  • Properly select, start, operate and interpret air monitoring instruments provided by the AHJ


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Instrument Characteristics

  • Calibration

  • Start up procedures

  • Sensitivity

  • Accuracy

  • Selectivity

  • Response time

  • Lag time

  • Inherent safety


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Air Monitoring Requirements

  • Corrosivity (pH)

    • Necessary to protect instruments

  • Radiological

  • Flammability

  • Oxygen

  • Toxicity


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Devices

  • pH

    • Litmus paper

    • Wetted

    • Red/Blue

  • Meters

    • Not feasible in emergency response


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Radiation Detection

  • Types

    • Alpha

    • Beta

    • Gamma

  • Units of measure

    • 1 REM = 1,000 Mrem

    • 1 mREM = 1000 REM


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Radiation Detection

  • Detector Types

    • Ion chambers

    • Geiger Muller

    • Scintillation

    • Semiconductor

  • Gamma spectroscopy

    • Identification of isotopes


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CGI

  • Wheatstone bridge or catalytic bead

  • Very accurate to calibrating gas

  • Readings expressed in % of LEL

  • Affected by  Temp, humidity, elevation

  • Does not identify the gas

  • Response factors needed


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Oxygen

  • Technology  Electrochemical

  • Very accurate

  • Reading  % of oxygen in air

  • Shelf life of about 1 to 2 years

  • Affected by temp

  • Poisoned by acids (CO2)


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Toxicity

  • Technology  PID or Electrochemical

  • Electrochemical

    • Chemical specific

    • Reading  PPM or % by vol.

    • Most accurate to concentration of calibration gas

    • Poisoned by acids or bases

    • Affected by  Interferences, temp


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Toxicity

  • Photo ionization detector

    • Technology  UV bulb to ionize material

    • Not chemical specific

    • Readings  PPM

    • Accurate to calibration gas

    • Affected by  Humidity, high concentrations

    • Does not identify the gas

    • Response factors needed


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WMD Detection

  • M8 paper

    • Colorimetric paper

    • Detects nerve agents, blister agents

    • Reading  Color change indicates agent present

    • Easy to use

    • Liquids only

  • M256A1 kit

    • Technology  Wet chemistry

    • Detects  Nerve agents, blister agents, cyanides

    • Reading  Color change indicates agent present

    • Takes about 30 min to detect vapors

    • Difficult to use in gear

    • Interpretation required by user


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WMD Detection

  • APD2000

    • Technology  IMS

    • Detects  Nerve agents, blister agents, pepper and tear gas, gamma radiation

    • Reading  Indicates which agent present

    • Very sensitive PPB

    • False positives


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WMD Detection

  • Haz Mat CAD

    • Technology  Surface Acoustical Wave (SAW) and electrochemical

    • Detects  Nerve agents, blister agents, cyanides and TICs

    • Readings  Indicates which agent type present

    • Very sensitive PPB

    • False positives


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Biological Detection

  • Protein screen

    • Indicates presence of protein

    • Some screens also indicate extremes in pH

  • Immunoassay

    • Some are very accurate

    • Possible false positives or negatives

    • Results in minutes

    • only a screening tool!!!!

  • PCR


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Summary

  • Air monitoring enables decision making

  • Required detection activities

    • Flammability, oxygen, radiological, toxicity

  • Instrument chacateristics

  • Instrument calibration

    • Calibration, field calibration checks, bumping

  • Relative response


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Activity 5.5

Start-up and Use of Organization’s Detection Equipment


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