Ch 40 – Animal Form & Function. Form & function. Evolution of Animal size & shape Constrained by physical forces Convergent evolution i.e. fusiform shape for aquatic animals. Seal. Penguin. Exchange with Environment. Mouth. Gastrovascular cavity.
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(a) Single cell
(b) Two layers of cells
More complex animals – have highly folded internal surfaces for maximum exchange
Advantages of a complex body:
Better able to deal with environmental changes
Countercurrent heat exchange – in many birds & mammals, also sharks, dolphins
Thermoregulation is controlled by a region of the brain called the hypothalamus
How can metabolic rate be measured?
Size – rate is proportional to body mass, smaller animals have higher metabolic rate per gram than larger animals
Reproduction – high energy cost
strategies: seasonal reproduction,
life history strategy – i.e. diapause (in insects)