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Animal Science. Michael Gowans Westlake High School. Structure and Function . Animal Structures and Function. Animals are composed of a variety of interdependent systems No one system can function entirely on its own

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Animal science

Animal Science

Michael Gowans

Westlake High School



Animal structures and function
Animal Structures and Function

  • Animals are composed of a variety of interdependent systems

  • No one system can function entirely on its own

  • In order to keep animals healthy, producers make sure that all systems function properly.


Skeletal system
Skeletal System

  • Function

    • Provides frame and support for all systems and organs.

  • Cartilage

    • Firm, flexible tissues that is not as hard as bone


Skeletal system1
Skeletal System

  • Bone

    • Attach muscles

    • Means of movement

    • Protect internal organs

    • Storage of minerals


Skeletal system2
Skeletal System

  • Layers of Bone

    • Periosteum

      • Outer layer

      • Cushions the hard portion of the bone

      • Repair of broken bones


Skeletal system3
Skeletal System

  • Layers of Bone

    • Compact Bone

      • beneath periosteum

      • layer of hard mineral matter

      • Calcium

      • gives bones strength


Skeletal system4
Skeletal System

  • Layers of Bone

    • Spongy Bone

      • Inside hard outer layer

      • fills ends of bones

      • lines hollow portions


Skeletal system5
Skeletal System

  • Layers of Bone

    • Red marrow

      • inside cavities of spongy bone

      • formation of red blood cells


Skeletal system6
Skeletal System

  • Layers of Bone

    • Yellow marrow

      • Located inside hollow portion

      • Fat storage cells

      • Energy storage


Skeletal system7
Skeletal System

  • Types of Bone

    • Long Bones

      • Longest

      • Provide support and movement

      • Levers

    • Example -- legs, ribs, pelvic bones


Skeletal system8
Skeletal System

  • Types of Bone

    • Short Bones

      • Smaller than long

      • Joints

      • Comfort and mobility

    • Example -- feet and hands


Skeletal system9
Skeletal System

  • Types of Bone

    • Irregular Bones

      • Have an irregular shape

      • Support and protect

    • Example -- vertebrae


Skeletal system10
Skeletal System

  • Types of Bone

    • Flat Bones

      • Thin and flat

      • Protect organs

    • Example -- skull


Skeletal system11
Skeletal System

  • Joints

    • Where different bones meet

  • Ligaments

    • Connect bones together; tough tissue


Skeletal system12
Skeletal System

  • Joints

    • Classified by the way they move.





Muscle system
Muscle System

  • Function

    • To provide movement for the proper functioning of the organs.

  • Meat production

    • Muscles are processed into meat

    • 30-40% of the animal’s body is muscle.


Muscle system1
Muscle System

  • Skeletal Muscle

    • Movement for the bones

    • Voluntary movement

    • Composed of long, striated bundles that contract and relax


Muscle system2
Muscle System

  • Skeletal Muscle

    • Red Muscle

      • Contain many mitochondria;

      • Lots of blood; contract for long periods of time


Muscle system3
Muscle System

  • Skeletal Muscle

    • White Muscle

      • Fewer mitochondria

      • Contract faster

      • Fatigue faster.


Muscle system4
Muscle System

  • Smooth Muscle

    • Movement

      • Controls movements of the internal organs

      • Involuntary.

    • Examples-- Digestive tract, urinary tract



Muscle system6
Muscle System

  • Cardiac Muscle

    • Movement

      • Muscles that control the heart

      • Involuntary


Circulatory system
Circulatory System

  • Function

    • Transports

      • Water

      • Oxygen

      • Wastes

    • Regulates temperature

    • Removes disease


Circulatory system1
Circulatory System

  • Heart

    • Center of the circulatory system

    • Large muscle

    • Pumpscontinuously


Circulatory system2
Circulatory System

  • Blood Vessels

    • Arteries

      • Vessels that take blood away from the heart

    • Veins

      • Vessels that return blood to the heart


Circulatory system3
Circulatory System

  • Capillaries

    • Connect arteries and veins

    • Deliver nutrients to the cells

    • Take away waste


Circulatory system4
Circulatory System

  • Red Blood cells

    • Give blood color

    • Carry oxygen

  • White Blood cells

    • Destroy disease

    • Pus


Circulatory system5
Circulatory System

  • Four Chambers

    • Right Atrium

      • Receives blood into heart from body, from veins

    • Right Ventricle

      • Pumps blood out to the lungs

    • Left Atrium

      • Receives blood into heart from lungs

    • Left Ventricle

      • Pumps blood out into body via arteries


Lungs

Veins

Right Atrium

Left Atrium

Left

Ventricle

Right Ventricle

Arteries


Respiratory system
Respiratory System

  • Function:

    • Takes oxygen from the air

    • Places it in the bloodstream

    • Removes carbon dioxide


Respiratory system1
Respiratory System

  • Structures

    • Nostrils

      • Large amounts of air

    • Nasal Chamber

    • Mouth

      • Brings in air


Respiratory system2
Respiratory System

  • Structures

    • Pharynx

      • Passageway for

        • Food

        • Water

        • Air

        • Controlled by epiglottis


Respiratory system3
Respiratory System

  • Larynx

    • Voice box (Adam’s apple)

    • Prevents material from entering lungs.

  • Trachea

    • Large tube

    • Made of rigid cartilaginous rings


Respiratory system4
Respiratory System

  • Bronchi

    • Branch out further

  • Lungs

    • Gas exchange


Respiratory system5
Respiratory System

  • Alveoli

    • Surrounded by blood vessels

    • Carbon dioxide is removed from blood

    • Oxygen is absorbed into blood


Respiratory system6
Respiratory System

  • Diaphragm

    • Large muscle under the lungs

    • When contracted, rib cage expands and air comes in

    • When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced out


Nervous system
Nervous System

  • Function:

    • Central system

      • Motor Control

      • Sensation


Nervous system1
Nervous System

  • Nerves

    • Long fiber like structures

  • Motor Neurons

    • Controls impulses sent from the brain

    • To other parts of the body


Nervous system2
Nervous System

  • Sensory Neurons

    • Send impulses from the body to the brain.

  • Spinal Cord

    • All nerves are connected

    • Runs through the backbone (vertebra)


Nervous system3
Nervous System

  • Brain

    • Center of the nervous system

    • Divided into 3 sections


Nervous system4
Nervous System

  • Brain

    • 1. Cerebrum

      • Largest

      • Controls thought process

        • Ouch!


Nervous system5
Nervous System

  • Brain

    • 2. Cerebellum

      • Coordinator center for the cerebrum

      • Many movements are required to walk, eat, etc…


Nervous system6
Nervous System

  • Brain

    • 3. Medulla oblongata

      • Involuntary activities

        • Heart beat

        • Digestion

        • Breathing

      • Body Temp.

      • Feeling – Fear or Thirst


Nervous system7
Nervous System

  • Brain Stem

    • Connects the spinal cord to the cerebrum.


Digestive system
Digestive System

  • Function:

    • Animal takes in food

    • Digested in to a form that the body can use.

      • Basic elements – Oxygen, Iron, Potassium, etc…


Digestive system1
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Simple stomach

    • One compartment

      • Pigs

      • Horse

      • Dog

      • Cat

      • Birds


Digestive system2
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Mouth

      • Grind down food

    • Esophagus

      • Push food to stomach

      • Muscles move food down


Digestive system3
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Stomach

      • Muscles

        • Contacts and relaxes

      • Food pressed together

      • Digestive juices secreted by the stomach lining.

        • Hydrochloric Acid


Digestive system4
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Stomach

      • Food is dissolved from movement and acid.


Digestive system5
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Small Intestine

      • Duodenum

        • Secreted from pancreas

        • Breaks down proteins, starch and fats.

        • Juices still secreted to break down food.


Digestive system6
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Small Intestine

      • Jejunum

        • Nutrients absorbed into the body

        • From intestine to blood stream.

      • Villi – Semi-Permeable membrane

        • Particles pass through.


Digestive system7
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Large Intestine

      • Cecum

        • Not used in most monogastrics


Digestive system8
Digestive System

  • Modified Monogastric System

    • Horse

      • Uses cecum to digest roughage


Digestive system9
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Large Intestine

      • Colon

        • Storage of waste

        • Water is removed


Digestive system10
Digestive System

  • Monogastric

    • Rectum

      • Muscle that passes waste out of the body.


Digestive system11
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Cows

    • Goats

    • Sheep

    • Deer

    • Elk


Digestive system12
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • These eat large quantities of fibrous material.

      • Hay

      • Alfalfa

      • Etc…

    • Roughage – Fibrous Feed


Digestive system13
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Multi compartment (4 main)

      • Breaks down the polysaccharides

    • They chew their (CUD)


Digestive system14
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Mouth

      • Food is ground down by teeth

      • Also used to brake down the cud.


Digestive system15
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Teeth

      • Incisors – Lower front teeth

      • Dental pad – Upper part of mouth

      • Molars

    • Used to tear forages from ground


Digestive system16
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Must produce large amounts of saliva

    • Used to feed microorganisms in the rumen


Digestive system17
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Esophagus

      • Transport food to digestive tract

      • Transport CUD to mouth.


Digestive system18
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Reticulum

      • Hardware stomach

        • Due to large mouth they collect hardware

          • Wire form fence

          • Rocks

          • Etc…


Digestive system19
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Reticulum

      • Secretes mucus

      • Honeycomb shaped

      • Traps hardware from traveling to the rest of the digestive system.


Digestive system20
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Reticulum

      • Regurgitation

      • Packs feed into and eggs shaped ball to be re-chewed. (CUD)


Digestive system21
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Rumen

      • Largest compartment

      • Food is soaked, mixed.

      • Microorganisms ferment the feed.

      • Carbohydrates are absorbed by the papillae.

        • Small fingerlike projections that aid in absorption


Digestive system22
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Omasum

      • Size of a quarter to enter.

      • Round – Soccer Ball

      • Many Folds – Like a round book

      • Grinds the food as it passes through.


Digestive system23
Digestive System

  • Ruminant System

    • Abomasum

      • True stomach

      • Functions the same as the monogastric

    • Intestines are the same as monogastric.


Endocrine system
Endocrine System

  • Function:

    • Composed of glands that secrete hormones.

  • Hormones:

    • Chemical agent that causes an effect in the body.

    • Hormones control vital function of the body.

      • Growth

      • Reproduction


Endocrine system1
Endocrine System

  • Pituitary Gland:

    • Located at the base of the brain

    • Master gland

  • Functions

    • Growth of bone

    • Maternal Behavior

    • Reproduction cells


Endocrine system2
Endocrine System

  • Hypothalamus

    • Links the Endocrine with the nervous system.

    • Location

      • Under the lower front part of the brain

    • Secretes hormones for:

      • Hunger

      • Sleep

      • Body Temp


Endocrine system3
Endocrine System

  • Adrenal Gland

    • Located by Kidney

    • Adrenalin – Times of stress

  • Thyroid Gland

    • Front of wind pipe

    • Controls rate of digestion

    • Storage of calcium


Endocrine system4
Endocrine System

  • Pancreas

    • Below the stomach

    • Produces Insulin and glucagons

      • Regulates the amount of glucose in the blood stream


Endocrine system5
Endocrine System

  • Hormones

    • Regulate other organs of the body as well

      • Reproduction

      • Etc…


Excretory system
Excretory System

  • Function:

    • Rid the body of wastes

    • Kidney

      • Remove urea and nitrogen

      • Filtrates liquids ingested.

    • Wastes are flushes out the urinary tract.


Animal reproduction

Animal Reproduction

Biology Agriculture


Reproductive system
Reproductive System

  • Ovaries

    • Female reproductive gland in which eggs are formed and hormones are produced.

  • Testes

    • Male reproductive gland that produces sperm and testosterone.


Reproductive system1
Reproductive System

  • Female Reproductive Cell

    • EGG (OVULE)

  • Male Reproductive Cell

    • SPERM

    • Semen - the fluid that carries sperm


Reproductive system2
Reproductive System

  • Production of sperm is called SPERMATOGENESIS

  • Production of eggs is called OOGENESIS


Reproductive system3
Reproductive System

  • Zygote

    • Cell formed by the union of egg and sperm at fertilization.

  • Embryo

    • Organism in early stages of development.

  • Pregnancy

    • carrying a fetus

  • Fertilization

    • the union of the egg and sperm nuclei


Reproductive system4
Reproductive System

  • Conception

    • occurrence of fertilization

  • Ovulation

    • release of an ovule from the female.

  • Gestation

    • the time from fertilization or conception of a female until she gives birth


Reproductive system5
Reproductive System

  • Vulva -opening of reproductive tract


Reproductive system6
Reproductive System

  • Vagina - channel for birth and urinary tract


Reproductive system7
Reproductive System

  • Cervix - divides vagina and uterus


Reproductive system8
Reproductive System

  • Uterus - provides nourishment for fetus


Reproductive system9
Reproductive System

  • Horns of Uterus - where fetus grows


Reproductive system10
Reproductive System

  • Fallopian Tube - where fertilization occurs


Reproductive system11
Reproductive System

  • Ovaries - produces eggs and hormones


Reproductive system12
Reproductive System

  • Testes - produce sperm and testosterone


Reproductive system13
Reproductive System

  • Epididymis - collects and stores sperm


Reproductive system14
Reproductive System

  • Vas deferens - transports sperm


Reproductive system15
Reproductive System

  • Penis - places sperm in female


Reproductive system16
Reproductive System

  • Scrotum - protects testes, maintains temp


Reproductive system17
Reproductive System

  • Sheath - opening of reproductive tract


Animal reproduction1
Animal Reproduction

  • Ovaries – produces eggs and hormones


Animal reproduction2
Animal Reproduction

  • The ovaries are stimulated by a hormone called the follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and produce a FOLLICLE where the egg (ovum) grows and matures


Animal reproduction3
Animal Reproduction

  • When the egg matures the follicle ruptures and releases the egg - OVULATION



Mating process
Mating Process

  • Around the time of ovulation estrogen causes estrus or heat

    • The time that the female will allow the male to mate with her

  • Males seek out females that are in estrus


Mating process1
Mating Process

  • During mating millions of sperm are deposited in the female vagina.

  • Sperm moves by using their tails in a whiplike action – motile


Mating process2
Mating Process

  • Sperm travels from the vagina through the cervix and uterus and into the fallopian tubes

  • Sperm and egg unit in the fallopian tube


Reproductive technologies
Reproductive Technologies

  • Reproductive Technologies

    • Any method of reproduction that is different from natural methods


Reproductive technologies1
Reproductive Technologies

  • Embryo Transfer:

    • The transfer of fertilized egg(s) from a donor female to one or more recipient females


Reproductive technologies2
Reproductive Technologies

  • Embryo Transfer


Reproductive technologies3
Reproductive Technologies

  • Embryo Transfer


Reproductive technologies4
Reproductive Technologies

  • Super Ovulation:

    • Giving animals a hormone that causes them to produce more then one egg.


Reproductive technologies5
Reproductive Technologies

  • Artificial Insemination

    • Placing sperm into the female reproductive tract by means other than natural mating.


Reproductive problems
Reproductive Problems

  • Sterility:

    • Inability of an animal to reproduce

  • Freemartin:

    • In twins, when a female is exposed to male testosterone before birth.

    • Causes problems with the development of female reproductive organs


Reproductive practices
Reproductive Practices

  • Purebreeding

    • Breeding two pure breed animals together

    • Usually papered to prove genetics

  • Crossbreeding

    • One breed is breed to another

    • Ex. Angus x Herford = Black Baldy


Reproductive practices1
Reproductive Practices

  • Grading-up

    • Taking grade cows and breeding to purebreds


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