Cell parts and functions
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Cell Parts and Functions. Biology 11 S.Dosman. Classification of Cells. Cell Membrane. Outermost boundary of the cell. Made of proteins and a bilayer (double) of lipid (fat)molecules. Holds the cell content in place. Regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell. Nucleus.

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Cell Parts and Functions

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Cell Parts and Functions

Biology 11


Classification of Cells

Cell Membrane

  • Outermost boundary of the cell.

  • Made of proteins and a bilayer(double) of lipid (fat)molecules.

  • Holds the cell content in place.

  • Regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.


  • Control center of the cell.

  • Contains threadlike chromosomes made of genes. Chromosomes are made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

  • Pores in the nuclear envelope allow some things to pass through.


  • Located inside the nucleus.

  • Cell may contain one or more nucleoli.

  • They produce or manufacture ribosomes.


  • Oval shaped with 2 membranes – a smooth outer & and inner folded membrane called cristae.

  • Often referred to as the “power house”of the cell.

  • Site of cellular respiration – energy is released from sugar & energy is stored in ATP.

  • Mitochondria contain their own DNA!

Golgi Apparatus

  • Stores, modifies & packages proteins from the RER.

  • Looks like a stack of flattened pancakes.

  • Pinches off to form small protein filled vesicles.

  • Forms lysosomes.


  • Site of protein synthesis.

  • Amino acids are joined together to make proteins here.

  • Made of rRNA and proteins, the smallest organelles (20nm).

  • There are many ribosomes in one cell attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or floating freely in the cytoplasm.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Organelle with a double membrane and ribosomes attached.

  • Extends from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane.

  • Transports proteins made by the ribosomes to the Golgi apparatus.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Double membrane bound organelle without ribosomes.

  • Also extends throughout the cell.

  • Produces lipids for the cell.


  • Organelles bound by a single membrane and formed by the Golgi apparatus.

  • Contain enzymes to break down large molecules & cell parts. Nick named Suicide sac

  • Only found in

    animal cells


  • Fluid filled sacs that act as storage for sugars, minerals, proteins & water.

  • Gives plant cells physical support.

  • Plant cells have large, central vacuoles.

  • Animal cells have many smaller vacuoles.


  • Microfilaments are threadlike structures in the cytoplasm that help provide shape & movement.

  • Microtubules are tubelike fibres (made of protein) that transport materials through the cytoplasm – also found in flagella & cilia.


  • Composed of nine bundles of three microtubules.

  • Found only in animal cells.

  • Play a key role in cell division.


  • Chemical factories or storehouses for food or pigments.

  • Chloroplasts – contain chlorophyll & are the site of photosynthesis.

  • Chromoplasts – store pigments (orange, yellow).

  • Amyloplasts – colorless and store starch (potato).

Cell Wall

  • Protects & supports the cell.

  • Primary cell wall made of cellulose.

  • Some plant cells have an additional secondary wall with a middle lamella in between that contains a sticky pectin to hold cells together.


  • A jelly-like substance that fills the interior of the cell.

  • Many metabolic reactions occur within the cytoplasm.

Cilia and Flagella

  • A flagellum is a whip like tail

  • that aids in movement

  • Flagella spin like a propeller

  • Cilia (cilium)are shorter, hair like

    structures that aid in movement

    and moving materials.

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