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Human Systems. Create Flow Chart Graphic Organizer. Levels of Organization. Nerve Cell. Tissue. organ. System. Heading. Notes. Meanings Questions Main ideas Vocabulary. Copy this diagram in your notebooks. This is called Cornell Notes. Summary. Cell.

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Levels of organization
Levels of Organization

Nerve

Cell

Tissue

organ

System


Heading

Notes

Meanings

Questions

Main ideas

Vocabulary

Copy this diagram in your notebooks.

This is called

Cornell Notes

Summary


Cell

  • Basic unit of structure and function

  • Carries on life functions

  • Organisms are one cell or many cells---Human has over a trillion cells

  • Smallest unit

    of

    organization

Are all cells the same?

Unicellular or multicellular

The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all living things that keeps the organism

Living.


Tissue

  • Group of similar cells doing the same job

  • Four types of tissue

  • a. Connective

  • 1. provides support

  • 2. connects all parts of body to each other

  • b. Muscle

  • 1. provides movement

  • 2. contract

  • c. Nerve

  • 1. directs and controls body

  • 2. carries impulses between brain and rest of body

  • d. Epithelial

  • 1. covers surfaces of body—inside and out

  • 2. Protects

  • 3. Releases chemicals

Examples:

Connective---blood, bone, fat,

tendons, cartilage

Muscle---allows body to move,

moves blood and food

through body

Nerve- - - brain, spinal cord,

senses—hear, smell, think

Epithelial—skin,

line digestive system

You write a summary of this slide

Possible Example:

Tissue is the second level of organization. There are four basic types of tissues that do different jobs, connective, muscle, nerve and epithelial.


Organ

  • 3rd level of organization

  • Example:

  • Heart—pumps blood, Made up of nerve tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue and epithelial tissue

  • Stomach-churns and mixes food and digestive juices. Made up of smooth muscle tissue, nerve tissue, epithelial tissue

organ

Composed of different tissues working together to perform a specific function.

tissue

cell

Write a summary

Possible summary:

The third level of organization is the organ which is composed of different kinds of tissues working together to perform a function.


Organ System

  • Fourth level of organization

  • Examples:

  • Circulatory system—heart-artery-vein-capillaries

  • Digestive system-contains organs like esophagus-stomach-small intestine-large intestine

  • Skeletal System-206 different organs (bones) like the femur-patella-cranium-ribs-phalanges

  • Muscular System- over 600 different organs (muscles) like the triceps-biceps-pectorals

  • Nervous System-brain-peripheral nerves-spinal cord

Group of different organs working together to accomplish a specific task

Write your summary

Possible summary:

The fourth level of organization is the organ system. The organ system consists of different organs working together to perform a task. For example, the digestive system is made up of organs like the stomach, small intestine, pancreas etc. that break down food for absorption by the body.


Organ system skeletal system
Organ SystemSkeletal System


Background
Background

Bones-made from elements phosphorus and calcium

206 bones in average human. Newborns have more (some have not fused yet!)

Smallest bones are in the ear—Hammer, anvil, and stirrup

Largest bone is the femur (thigh bone)


Skeletal system s functions
Skeletal System’s Functions

5 major functions

  • Shape and support

    unique structure for each organism-skeleton provides the framework while supporting the body and the organs within


Skeletal system s functions1
Skeletal System’s Functions

  • Allows movement

    Muscles are attached to the skeleton. The muscles contract, pulling on the bones. The attachment to the bone allows the movement or contraction of the muscles. Just like a rubber band cannot contract unless it is attached at both ends.


Skeletal system s functions2
Skeletal System’s Functions

  • Protects

  • Bones have a compact and a spongy layer.

  • Compact and spongy layers give the bones their strength and allow them to absorb forces

  • Bones surround the chest cavity (rib cage), cranium surrounds the soft tissues of the brain


Skeletal system s functions3
Skeletal System’s Functions

  • Produces blood cells

  • Certain bones, like the femur, have central layer called red marrow

  • Red marrow produces blood cells for the body


Skeletal system s functions4
Skeletal System’s Functions

  • Stores materials until body needs them

  • Certain bones have central layer called yellow marrow

  • Yellow marrow stores fats for energy reserves

  • Bones will also release phosphorus and calcium in small amounts when the body needs those minerals


Layers of bone
Layers of Bone

  • Four layers:

  • Periosteum—outermost layer, blood vessels enter the bone through this layer


Layers of bone1
Layers of Bone

  • Compact layer— 2nd layer dense material, has canals in it that carry blood vessels and nerve cells


Layers of bone2
Layers of Bone

  • Spongy layer-3rd layer, at ends of bones, has spaces within it. Makes the bones lighter while maintaining the strength


Layers of bone3
Layers of Bone

  • Marrow—innermost layer, red or yellow, soft material, connective tissue


Name the bones
Name the bones

  • 1. cranium 2. mandible

  • 3. clavicle 4. sternum

  • 5. humerus 6. ribs

  • 7. vertebra 8. pelvis

  • 9. radius 10. ulna

  • 11. carpals

  • 12. metacarpals

  • 13.(20) phalanges

  • 14. femur 15. patella

  • 16. tibia 17. fibula

  • 18. tarsals 19. metatarsals


Skeleton

Across

2.upper arm 5.Backbone 7.Palm 9.Ribs 11. Collarbone 13. Skull 16. hips 17. shoulder blade

Down

1. breastbone 3. Arch 4. Thigh 6. Ankle 8. Lower leg large bone

9. lower arm near thumb 10. Lower arm near little finger 12. Kneecap 13. Wrist

14. lower leg thin bone 15. toes


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