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Connective Tissue HKIN 473 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Connective Tissue HKIN 473. Group Members: Amy Chu Jesse Godwin Hale Loofbourrow Scott Apperley Greg Kirk Ken Anderson. Overview. Introduction to Connective Tissue Tendons Ligaments Cartilage Conclusion. Introduction.

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Connective Tissue HKIN 473

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Connective tissue hkin 473

Connective TissueHKIN 473

Group Members:

Amy Chu

Jesse Godwin

Hale Loofbourrow

Scott Apperley

Greg Kirk

Ken Anderson



  • Introduction to Connective Tissue

  • Tendons

  • Ligaments

  • Cartilage

  • Conclusion



  • Connective tissues are situated around the body and play numerous roles

  • Components common to connective tissue

    • Collagen Fibers

      • Most abundant (parallel in arrangement)

      • Stronger than steel

    • Reticular Fibers

      • Criss-cross

    • Elastic Fibers

      • Slightly elastic



Tendons function

Tendons: Function

  • Primary Function

    • Attach muscle to bone thereby transmitting tensile loads from muscle to bone to produce movement.

  • Secondary Function

    • Allows the muscle belly to be at an optimal distance from the joint upon which it acts.

Tendons anatomy

Tendons: Anatomy

  • 86% collagen fibers making them very strong

  • The connective tissue that runs the length of the muscle joins together into a bundle of connective tissue, forming the tendon

Tendons physiology

Tendons: Physiology

  • Biomechanical Properties of Tendons

    • 4 regions of the graph

      • (1) concave or “toe,” region. Results form change in the wavy pattern of relaxed collagen fibers which become straighter as the load progresses. Little force is required to elongate tissue initially.

      • (2) linear region. The fibers straighten out and stiffness of the specimen increases rapidly.

Tendons physiology con t

(3) End of linear relation. When the linear region is surpassed major failure of the fiber bundles occurs. Small force reductions in the curve represent early sequential failure of a few greatly stretched fiber bundles.

(4) Maximum load, expressing the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue. Complete failure of the tissue to resist load.

Tendons: Physiology (con’t)

Tendons injury

Tendons: Injury

  • The amount of force that the muscle, which the tendon is attached to, can generate and the cross sectional area of the tendon are the major factors in predicting injury.

  • When subjected to loading that exceeds the physiological range, micro-failure takes place even before the yield point is reached.

  • If muscle contracted, the stress on the tendon can be greatly increased with a rapid eccentric contraction.

Tendons viscoelastic behavior

Tendons: Viscoelastic Behavior

  • Display rate-dependent behavior under loading (mechanical properties change with different rates of loading).

  • The linear portion of the stress strain curve becomes steeper with increased loading rates. (ie, there is a higher level of stiffness at higher strain rates)

  • With these higher strain rates, tendons can store more energy, require more force to rupture, and undergo greater elongation.

Tendons adaptations

Tendons: Adaptations

  • Factors that affect the mechanical properties of tendon include:

    a) Maturation and Aging

    • directly related to quality and number of collagen cross links

      b) Pregnancy

    • tendons and pubic symphysis

      c) Mobilization and Immobilization

      d) NSAID’s

    • short term administration after injury thought to increase rate of biomechanical restoration of tissue.



Ligaments function

Ligaments: Function

  • Tough, white, fibrous, slightly elastic tissues

  • Connect bone to bone

  • Supporting and strengthening joints

  • Restrict range of motion to prevent excessive movement that could cause dislocation and spraining

Ligaments anatomy

Ligaments: Anatomy

  • Ligaments and tendons are regular dense collagen bundles

    • The collagen fibers are closely packed and arranged in parallel to give higher tensile strength

    • Ligaments are strongest with forces parallel to the fiber arrangement (along axis of the fibers)

  • Highly avascular

    • Heal slowly

  • Very similar to tendons

Ligaments examples

Ligaments: Examples

Ligaments sprains

Ligaments: Sprains

  • Can be caused by the severe stretching or tearing or a ligament

  • Often caused by twisting or wrenching movement

  • Symptoms: pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising

  • Treatment: immediate cold compress and elevation, long term bandaging and/or splinting

    • In rare cases, surgery my be a useful alternative

  • Full recovery may take up to 5 weeks



Cartilage anatomy

Cartilage: Anatomy

  • Dense network of collagen and elastin fibers

  • Fibers are embedded in a ground substance of chrondroitin sulfate

  • Collagen provides strength

  • Elastin provides elasticity

  • Cartilage is an avascular tissue

Cartilage types

Cartilage: Types

  • Three primary types based on proportion of chondrocytes, elastin fibers and collagen fibers

    1. Fibrocartilage

    2. Elastic Cartilage

    3. Hyaline Cartilage

1 firbrocartilage

1. Firbrocartilage

  • Large proportion of collagen fibers

  • Provides strength and support

  • Found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci of the knee

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

2 elastic cartilage

2. Elastic Cartilage

  • Chondrocytes reside in a “threadlike network” provided by elastic fibers

  • Provides strength and elasticity while maintaining shape

  • Found in the epiglottis and external ear

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

3 hyaline cartilage

3. Hyaline Cartilage

  • Most abundant cartilage composed of fine collagen fibres with many chondrocytes

  • Provides flexibility and support

  • Found in the nose, larynx, bronchi, trachea and on the anterior ends of ribs

Source: Polychondritis Educational Society, Ltd

Cartilage endochondral ossification

Cartilage: Endochondral Ossification

  • A further function of Hyaline Cartilage is in the formation of long bones

  • Starting in the fetus, cartilage calcifies until full bone growth has been achieved, typically at the age of 25

Tortora & Grabowski, 2000

Articular cartilage

Articular Cartilage

  • Hyaline or Fibrocartilage found in joints on the articulating surfaces of bones

  • Provides a smooth, slippery surface that reduces friction and absorbs shock in joints

Tortora & Grabowski, 2000

Cartilage osteoarthritis

Cartilage: Osteoarthritis

  • Painful condition in which the articular cartilage between bones degenerates

  • 11% of people older than 64 years old experience symptoms of osteoarthritis

  • Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been found to relieve some pain symptoms

Cartilage knee menisci

Cartilage: Knee Menisci

  • The medial and lateral menisci are wedge-like cushions of fibrocartilage found in the knee joint between the tibia and femur

  • Knee menisci provide stability, support in carrying weight and allow movement in many directions

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2001

Cartilage meniscal tears

Cartilage: Meniscal Tears

  • Damage to the menisci can occur in decelerating, twisting, cutting or pivoting

  • Meniscal tears may cause loss of range of motion, pain, stiffness and knee locking

  • Meniscal injuries are hard to heal because of the absence of blood supply

  • Meniscal injuries may require surgical treatment

Thank you

Thank You

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