Connective Tissue
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Connective Tissue. Connective Tissue includes things like bone, fat, & blood. All connective tissues include: 1. specialized cells 2.extracellular protein fibers } matrix that surrounds cells. 3. a fluid known as ground substance. Functions include:

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  • Connective Tissue

    • includes things like bone, fat, & blood.

  • All connective tissues include:

  • 1. specialized cells

  • 2.extracellular protein fibers

  • } matrix that surrounds cells.

  • 3. a fluid known as ground substance


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  • Functions include:

    • Establish a structural framework

    • Transporting fluids from one part of the body to another

    • Protecting delicate organs

    • Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting other tissue types


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Connective tissues come in 3 major types

1. Connective tissue proper

2. Fluid Connective Tissue

3. Supporting Connective Tissue


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  • Connective Tissue Proper

  • Connective tissue with many cell types and extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance.

  • Some cells of CTP are involved w/repair, maintenance, and energy storage.

    • Fibroblasts

    • b. Adipocytes

    • c. Mesenchymal cells


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  • A. Macrophages

  • B. Mast cells

  • C. Lymphocytes

  • D. plasma cells

  • E. Microphages

  • The number of cells and cell types within a tissue at any given moment varies depending on local conditions.


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    • The Cell Population jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • A. Fibroblasts

      • Most abundant cells in CTP

      • Permanent resident of CTP (always present)

      • Produce proteins to make the ground substance very viscous

      • Also secrete proteins that make the fibers

    • B. Macrophages

      • Large amoeboid cells

      • Engulf & digest pathogens or damaged cells that enter the tissue

      • Release chemicals that activate the bodies immune system


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    • C. Adipocytes jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Fat cells

      • Typically contain a single enormous lipid droplet

      • Other organelles squeezed to side of cell wall (resemble a class ring)

    • D. Mesenchymal cells

      • Stem cells

      • Respond to injury by dividing into daughter cells which differentiate into connective tissue cells


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    • E. Melanocytes jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin

    • F. Lymphocytes

      • Migrate through the body

      • Some may develop into plasma cells (produce antibodies)

      • Congregate where tissue damage occurs


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    • G. Mast Cells jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Small mobile connective tissue cells

      • Found near blood vessels

      • Filled with histamine & heparin

      • *released after tissue damage to promote

      • inflammation

    • H. Microphages

      • Neutrophils & eosinophils

      • Phagocytic blood cells


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    • Connective Tissue Fibers jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • Collagen

      • Long, straight, unbranched

      • Most common fiber in CTP

      • Flexible, but greater tensile strength than steel

      • Tendons are almost entirely composed of collagen fibers (connect muscle to bone)


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    • B. Reticular Fibers jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • Thinner than collagen and branched

    • From interwoven network (tough but flexible)

    • Can resist forces from many different directions

    • Generally used for stabilizing the position of body part

    • C. Elastic Fibers

    • Contain elastin (protein)

    • Fibers are branched and wavy

    • Rare but important (connect vertebrae, etc.)


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    • Ground Substance jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • Fills the spaces between cells

    • Surrounds connective tissue fibers

    • In CTP it’s clear, viscous, and colorless (normally)

    • The viscosity makes it difficult for pathogens to move through the tissue


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    CTP comes in two basic varieties jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    1. loose connective tissue

    2. dense connective tissue


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    • A. Loose Connective Tissue jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Also called areolar tissue

      • “packing noodles” of the body

      • Fills spaces between organs, providing cushioning

      • Surrounds & supports blood vessels and nerves, and stores lipids

      • Least specialized CT in the body

      • Most of the volume is filled by ground substance

      • Forms a layer that separates the skin from deeper structures


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    Two Specialized commonly found types of loose CT jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    1. Adipose Tissue

    2. Reticular Tissue: found in liver & spleen making a

    3D network which supports

    the functional cells.


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    Adipose jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)


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    Reticular jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)


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    • Dense Connective Tissue jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • Most of the volume filled by collagen fibers

    • Known as collagenous tissue

    • Come in two types:


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    • Dense regular jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)(white fibrous)CT

      • Collagen fibers parallel to each other

      • Packed tightly

    • i.e.- tendons (muscle to bone)

    • ligaments (bone to bone)

    • elastic fibers (underlay transitional epithelium,

    • can with stand lots of stretching, also located

    • in walls of blood vessels)


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    Dense jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    Regular


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    Elastic jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)


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    • 2. Dense irregular CT jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Form interwoven meshwork

      • No consistent pattern

      • Provide strength/support to areas where stress is received from many directions.

    • i.e.- *gives skin its strength

    • *forms sheath around bones & cartilage

    • ↓ ↓

    • Periostium Perichondrium

    • *forms a layer around organs called a capsule


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    Dense jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    Irregular


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    • Fluid CT jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • Blood & lymph contain a distinctive set of cells in a liquid matrix

    • These contain many cells, but normally do not generate or contain insoluble fibers

    • Plasma, Interstitial Fluid, & Lymph


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    • Blood jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

    • The cells and cell pieces are collectively known as formed elements

    • The watery ground substance is called plasma.

    • Tiny membrane covered packets of cytoplasm in the blood called platelets contain enzymes and special proteins that function in clotting.


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    • RBC’s or erythrocytes jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)

      • Almost ½ volume of the blood

      • Responsible for transport of O2 (and CO2) in the blood

    • B. WBC’s or leukocytes

    • Include microphages (neutrophils, eosinophils,

    • basophils, lymphocytes)

    • Monocyte (macrophages)


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    Formed Elements of the Blood jobs (these roam from site to site as needed)


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