The transparent optical network an optical illusion
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The Transparent Optical Network An Optical Illusion?. Richard S. Wolff Telcordia Technologies [email protected] 973-829-4537. An SAIC Company. Key Contributors. Telcordia:Collaborators -Paul Toliver-GK Chang, Georgia Tech -Matt Goodman-Ben Yoo, UC Davis

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The Transparent Optical Network An Optical Illusion?

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The transparent optical network an optical illusion

The Transparent Optical NetworkAn Optical Illusion?

Richard S. Wolff

Telcordia Technologies

[email protected]

973-829-4537

An SAIC Company


Key contributors

Key Contributors

Telcordia:Collaborators

-Paul Toliver-GK Chang, Georgia Tech

-Matt Goodman-Ben Yoo, UC Davis

-Janet Jackel-Dan Blumenthal, UC Santa Barbara

-George Clapp

-Stu Wagner

-Ron Skoog

-Haim Kobrinski

-Robert Runser

-Ann Von Lehmen

-Joel Gannett

-Brian Meagher


Outline of talk

Outline of Talk

  • Some background on optical networking

  • Optical packet switching

  • Multi-layer optical network architectures

  • Where do we go from here?


Growth of the internet

Growth of the Internet

75% growth in the number of hosts over the last 12 months

Number of hosts, in millions

Source: www.netsizer.com


The transparent optical network an optical illusion

True Convergence of

IP and Optical Layer

Inflexible reconfigurability

High Management Complexity

Evolution of Optical Networking

Optical Provisioning, Reconfiguration, and Switching Strategies

Highly Dynamic

Optical Label

Switching

Dynamic

Reconfigurable

Optical Networks

Network Efficiency

Reconfigurable

Optical Networks

Addresses carrier needs*:

  • Bandwidth utilization

  • Provisioning time

  • Scalability

Static

Point-to-Point

Optical Transport

Past

Present

Future

*RHK Carrier Survey


The transparent optical network an optical illusion

IP and Optical Routing

IP over Re-configurable WDM Packet Routing Strategies:

(a) IP/Client Layer, (b) MPlS/Integrated Layer, and (c) OLS/Transport Layer

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

WDM

WDM

WDM

WDM

WDM

(a)

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

WDM

WDM

WDM

WDM

WDM

(b)

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

WDM

(c)

WDM

WDM

WDM

WDM


Key enabling ols technology

Key Enabling OLS Technology

  • Packet payload and in-band OLS label are decoupled through the use of subcarrier multiplexing technology

  • The simplified packet processing hardware results in significant cost savings for core network interfaces

Low Bit Rate

Subcarrier Label

Label and Packet

Forwarded

High Bit Rate

Optical Packet

Fiber

Optical Header

Extraction Unit

NRZ Packet

Payload

Subcarrier

Optical Label

Only low cost electronics required to process the label in parallel

Label Extracted

for Processing

Frequency

to Forwarding

Engine


Optical label switch node design

Optical-Label Switch Node Design

Fiber Delay

Line

LiNbO3 Optical Switch

Header

Processor

Forward Engine

Sub-carrier Receiver

Switch

Control

Logic

Sub-carrier Receiver

Header

Processor

Forward Engine


Optical label switch router schematics

Optical Label Switch Router- Schematics

Interoperable

with existing

network elements


The transparent optical network an optical illusion

Optical Label Switch Router–Physical Layout


The transparent optical network an optical illusion

Optical Switch Fabric and Forwarding Engine

LiNbO3

switch driver

Packet

Forwarding

engine

LiNbO3

switch array

Network

control

processor

Optical switch

ribbon input

Optical switch

ribbon output


Switch fabric testing optical rise fall time

Switch Fabric Testing: Optical Rise & Fall Time

Optical rise & fall time:~3 nsDead time:~6 nsTotal packet guard time:<10 ns


Optical label switching ngi testbed laboratory

Optical Label Switching NGI Testbed Laboratory

4

1

Tx

Rx

Switch node

Host 4

Host 1

NC&M Interface

Tx

Rx

Rx

Tx

Rx

Tx

Host 3

2

3

NC&M

Host 2

Edge

Routers

Terminal


Areas for research label swapping and wavelength conversion

Areas for Research: Label Swapping and Wavelength Conversion

  • Wide tunable semiconductor lasers

    • Tuning range: 40nm

    • Frequency accuracy: <10GHz

    • Accessing speed: < 10ns

  • Wavelength converter

    • Any wavelength to a fixed wavelength

    • Any wavelength to any wavelength

    • Efficient fiber couple with expanded beam technologies

  • Subcarrier Label Swapping

    • Optical notch filter in combination with single side band SCM tramsimitter (Improved tracking mechanism) by NCTU

    • Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based optical label eraser as a low-pass filter by UCSB


Area for research optical switch fabric technologies

Area for Research: Optical Switch Fabric Technologies

  • LiNbO3 Waveguide Switch (Lucent, EOspace, Lynx)

    • PDL, < 1dB

    • High crosstalk rejection, >35 dB

    • Fast switching, 5 ns

    • Medium dimension, 16 x 16

  • SOA Optical Switch (Alcatel, NEC, Kamelian)

    • Fast Switching, 1 ns

    • Provide optical dump

    • Optical multicast

    • Small dimension with PIC technology, 4 x 4

  • 3-D Optical MEMs (Lucent, Calient, Nortel)

    • Low insertion loss

    • Large dimension, 256 x 256

    • Switching speed, currently 10 ms


Areas for research network issues

Areas for Research: Network Issues

  • Critical Issue : Absence of Optical Buffer Memory

  • Lack of Precision Optical Synchronization

  • Contention of packets at the switching nodes

  • Possible Solutions :

    • Wavelength Conversion

    • Deflection Routing

    • Wavelength Flooding

    • Deflection Flooding


The transparent optical network an optical illusion

Optical-Label Switching for Packet Routing

alternate wavelength

Optical-label switching

IP/WDM Node

Signal

Source

alternate path

DATA

Signal

Destination

Optical

HEADER

preferred path

t

  • Priority

  • Wavelength interchange

  • Alternate path


Simulation of ols packet dropping

Simulation of OLS Packet Dropping


The multi layer transparent optical network

The Multi-layer Transparent Optical Network

Objective:

To provide a scalable multi-granular photonic layer infrastructure with the ability to provide intelligent dynamic access into optical bandwidth from packet to pipe.

the optical layer IS the convergence layer…

  • Multi-granularity

  • Multi-protocol capable

  • Multi-format/bit-rate support

  • Multi-domain support: wireless & wireline

  • Multi-vendor, multi-technology interoperability designed in


Vision of a multi layer optical network

Vision of a Multi-layer Optical Network

Optical packet/burstgranularity

Wavelengthgranularity

Waveband granularity

Fibergranularity


Multi layer optical network requirements

Multi-layer Optical Network Requirements


Edge to edge flows transparency selected to meet application requirements

Edge-to-Edge Flows:Transparency selected to meet application requirements

  • = wavelength


Atdnet an experimental transparent optical network

ATDNet: An Experimental Transparent Optical Network

LTS

DARPA

NASA

West

Ring

East

Ring

DISA

MEMS OXC

LiNbO3 WSXC

LiNbO3 OADM

DIA

NRL

OEO OADM

EDFA

WDM fiber

Client l


Optical wdm wavebanding approaches

Optical WDM Wavebanding Approaches

Contiguouswavebands

Interleavedwavebands

Arbitraryreconfigurablewavebands


Experimental demonstration of wavebanding atdnet west ring

Experimental Demonstration of WavebandingATDNet West Ring

25 GHz

Add

200 GHz

passband

Drop

Waveband


Optical burst transmission exeriment atdnet lts nrl lts

Optical Burst Transmission ExerimentATDNet, LTS-NRL-LTS


Monitoring in transparent networks

OADMs & PXCs

OADMs & PXCs

Routers &

Switches

Routers &

Switches

Optical Performance Monitoring (OPM) required

EDFA

EDFA

ADMs &

DCS

ADMs &

DCS

Regenerator

Regenerator

O/E/O

O/E/O

Customer

Specified

Service

Customer

Specified

Service

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Optical

Monitoring in Transparent Networks

OE boundaries within service provider administrative domains may completely disappear

Path

Path

Line

Line

Line

Line

Section

Section

Section

Section

Section

Section

Optical

CPE

Administrative Boundary

CPE


What is needed areas for research

What is Needed - Areas for Research

  • Architecture

    • Dynamic network reconfiguration in response to changing traffic demands

  • Enabling Technologies

    • Multi-granular, high performance, scalable optical switch fabrics

    • Wavelength agility and conversion

    • Optical packet switching technologies from switches to receivers

  • Network Management

    • Unified management of multi-granularity transport and switching

    • Policy management of configurations, services, security

    • Favorable compromise combining peer-to-peer and centralized management

    • Automated traffic engineering and connection management


The transparent optical network will packets and fiber optics converge

The Transparent Optical NetworkWill packets and fiber optics converge?

?

Fiber Optics

Packet Networks


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